Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2004. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 2.
Life habit: lichenicolous, parasitic, non-lichenized Ascomata: unknown Conidiomata: pycnidial, immersed, erumpent, occasionally becoming superficial, subglobose to pyriform, sometimes with a relatively large opening when mature and becoming cupuliform, and then often covered by a kind of mazaedium with a large quantity of conidia, opening by a large irregular pore without a well-defined and distinct ostiole; wall: composed of 2-4(-6) layers of polyhedral to rounded, dark brown cells, often paler towards the centrum, pseudoparenchymatous conidiophores: absent conidiogenous cells: usually hyaline, lining the inner wall of the pycnidial cavity, phialidic, sometimes proliferating with 1-2 annellations, subcylindrical to ampulliform conidia: brown to dark brown, simple, not catenate, subglobose, ellipsoid or pyriform, occasionally truncate at the base; wall: verruculose (sometimes almost appearing as smooth), verrucose or echinulate Geography: cosmopolitan Substrate: thallus and apothecia of lichens. Notes: The species of Lichenoconium are all very similar and often just distinguished by minor morphological differences. Some of these species, like L. erodens, are nonspecialized parasites occurring on many different host genera. Others are known from a few non-related host genera, suggesting that several cryptic species might be involved. Molecular work is needed here to determine the validity of this hypothesis.