Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2004. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 2.
Life habit: lichenicolous, commensalistic or parasitic, non-lichenized Ascomata: at first almost perithecioid or lens-shaped, breaking through the host cortex, finally apothecioid, concave to plane, fawn to black, single or in small group, immersed exciple: hyaline to dark olivaceous brown, composed of irregular subglobose to ±elongated pseudoparenchymatous cells, excipular setae and periphysoids absent hymenium: hyaline, I- and KI-; hypothecium: hyaline to brown, thin or absent paraphyses: filiform, simple or sparsely branched, septate, the apices capitate and brown or non-capitate and hyaline asci: broadly clavate, short stalked, with two distinct wall layers, apex truncated and thickened, discharge by a short extension of the inner apical tissues, without any amyloid reactions (I- and KI-), 8-spored ascospores: hyaline, broadly fusiform to ellipsoid or soleiform, often tapered below, smooth, (0-)1-3-septate, distichously arranged, without a distinct perispore Conidiomata: unknown Geography: cosmopolitan Substrate: thallus of Peltigerales.