Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Squamules: up to 5 mm wide, elongate, adnate to imbricate, weakly concave to weakly convex upper surface: castaneous to dark brown, dull or shiny, epruinose or partly pruinose, sparingly to strongly fissured margin: concolorous with upper side, straight or up-turned, crenulate to lobed upper cortex: up to 60-120 µm thick, composed of thick-walled hyphae with more or less angular lumina, not containing crystals of lichen substances, sometimes containing calcium oxalate medulla: not containing lichen substances or calcium oxalate lower cortex: of mainly periclinally oriented hyphae, not containing calcium oxalate lower surface: medium brown, K- Apothecia: up to 1.5 mm diam., laminal, immarginate or marginate when young and later becoming immarginate, dark brown to black, epruinose or yellow pruinose ascospores: ellipsoid, 10-13 x 5-7 µm Pycnidia: laminal, immersed conidia: bacilliform, 6-9 x 1 µm Spot tests: upper cortex and medulla K-, C-, KC-, P- Secondary metabolites: none detected. Substrate and ecology: on soil or in crevices of rock in open habitats, mainly in conifer forests and woodlands at 550-2800 m. World distribution: Asia, Europe and North America Sonoran distribution: rare in Arizona, California and Baja California.