Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Primary thallus: squamulose, persistent, forming depressed mats; squamules: 2-3 mm lone x 0.1-1 mm wide, dense, crenulate to much-dissected, esorediate or slightly sorediate podetia: yellow-green to glaucous green, unbranched to rarely sparingly branched at tips, 4-10 mm tall, clavate, broadening toward tips, without cups surface: corticate, esorediate; cortex: continuous to areolate-peltate or verruculose, occasionally squamulose Apothecia: constantly present, red, 1-2 mm wide ascospores: oblong, 9-12 x 3.5-4 micro meter pycnidia: abundant, on primary squamules, spherical to urn-shaped, constricted at base or not, with red gelatin conidia: 3-5 x 0.5 micro meter Spot tests: K+ yellow, C-, KC-, K+ yellow, P+ yellow, UV- Secondary metabolites: thallus with thamnolic and didymic acids (majors), usnic acid (accessory); apothecial discs with rhodocladonic acid as a red pigment. Habitat and ecology: on soil and humus in oak and pine forests World distribution: North America (Mexico and Arizona) Sonoran distribution: SE Arizona (Chiricahua Mts.) and along the Sierra Madre Occidental of Chihuahua. Notes: In Arizona it is an extension of its main range in Mexico. It is characterized by conspicuous wide colonies on soil and the presence of red apothecia on somewhat sturdy, short podetia.