Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2004. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 2.
Life habit: lichenicolous, commensalistic, non-lichenized Ascomata: apothecial, immersed or erumpent, dark-colored, 100-300 µm in diam., initially almost completely closed, except for a pore-like opening, remaining deeply urceolate when old margin: in some species with fissures exciple: green, brown, dark red or gray, with one or several characteristic pigments, mostly of conglutinated hyphae with subglobose to ±cylindrical lumina, hyaline to pale green or pale brown bordered near the margin, straight, cylindrical, obtuse, smooth, thin-walled or apically refractive, 0-1-septate hairs, rarely with a distinct annellate ornamentation (pigments covering the wall) epihymenium: hyaline or pale hymenium: hyaline, I- and KI-; subhymenium: thin, hyaline; paraphyses: filiform, simple or rarely branched below, c. 1.5 µm thick, apically not or poorly enlarged, not separating easily in K asci: cylindrical to elongate clavate, unitunicate, wall laterally thin, apically strongly thickened, with a small, but distinct ocular chamber, without any amyloid reactions (I- and KI), generally 8-spored ascospores: hyaline, ellipsoid, more rarely fusiform, in some species slightly curved or sigmoid to helicoid, smooth, 0(-3)-septate, biguttulate Conidiomata: unknown Geography: cosmopolitan Substrate: thallus of mainly crustose lichens, predominantly in well-preserved habitats.