Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Life habit: lichenized Thallus: crustose, effuse surface: white, 0.1-0.5 mm thick, smooth to rugose to verrucose, epruinose or finely pruinose; soredia absent cortex: usually present but sometimes absent, 10-25 µm thick; hyphae interwovenly arranged, hyaline medulla: very thin sometimes indiscernible photobiont: primary one a Trentepohlia, secondary photobiont absent Ascomata: apothecioid, numerous, solitary, circular in outline, sometimes undulating, elevated with constricted base, (0.2) 0.5-1 (1.6) mm diam.; disc: exposed, pruinose; exciple: cortex and algae usually present but sometimes absent; proper exciple: parathecial, but sometimes thin; epithecium: brown or brownish, branched or richly branched hyphae; hymenium: 70-100 µm thick with paraphysoids parallel, sparsely branched, hyaline, 1 µm diam.; hypothecium: dark-brown (carbonaceous), extending down to substrate asci: clavate, 50-80 x 10-15 µm, 8-spored ascospores: fusiform, curved, 3-septate, hyaline Conidiomata: pycnidial, solitary, immersed or slightly elevated, dark brown conidia: bacilliform, curved, simple, hyaline Secondary metabolites: beta-orcinol depsides Geography: predominantely subtropical regions and occurring in some mediterranean areas Substrate: on bark.