Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Life habit: lichenized Thallus: crustose or sometimes nearly subfruticose, effuse, smooth to slightly verrucose surface: creamy white to white-grayish to brown to green-brown, epruinose to slightly pruinose; soralia often developed (in species outside the Sonoran region); isidia not seen cortex: with mixed and intertwined hyaline hyphae in a brownish gelatinous substance medulla: white, chalky with or without brown hypomedulla in lower parts photobionts: primary one a Trentepohlia, secondary photobiont absent Ascomata: apothecioid, numerous, solitary to aggregated, circular in outline, sessile, 0.8-1.2 mm diam.; disc: exposed, convex or flat, pruinose, white-gray; exciple: entire or slightly undulating to strongly undulating; epithecium: brown or brownish; hymenium: hyaline; hypothecium: extending down to the substrate asci: clavate, 70-110 µm, 8-spored ascospores: fusiform, curved, smooth, 3-septate, hyaline, 25-31 x 4-5 µm Conidiomata: pycnidial, solitary, immersed, dark-brown conidia: filiform, curved or semi-circled, hyaline, 9-17 µm long less than 1 µm thick Secondary metabolites: beta-orcinol depsides and depsidones, dibenzofurans, aliphatic acids Geography: coastal regions of Mediterranean and subtropical climates Substrate: on bark or rock.