Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2004. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 2.
Life habit: lichenized surface: black when dry, dark olive when moist especially in thin film-like thallus parts, rarely grayish pruinose, smooth, sometimes striate, uneven, granulose, sometimes with globose isidia or with hormocystangia anatomy: ecorticate, homoiomerous, rarely with central or basal hyphal strands in the fruticose species, loose hyphal network surrounding photobiont cells photobionts: Nostoc, cells in short or elongated, straight or sinuose, bead-like chains, secondary photobiont absent Ascomata: apothecial, laminal on thallus or terminal, orbicular, immersed to semi-immersed, margin distinct, with thalloid rim ontogeny: hemiangiocarpous; ascogonia: arising in a tangle of generative hyphae beneath the thallus surface or pycnoascocarps with ascogones formed beneath pycnidia Conidiomata: pycnidial, laminal or marginal, immersed, ellipsoid; conidiophores: simple, with elongated cells Secondary metabolites: none detected Geography: world-wide in arid to humid habitats from tropics to arctic regions Substrate: on mosses, plant debris, soil crusts and various dry or temporarily inundated rocks. upper surface: black or dark olive green, smooth to nodulose or irregularly plicate, dull lower surface: attached by rhizohyphae Apothecia: few to abundant, sometimes crowded, immersed to semi-immersed, usually laminal, small, 0.2-0.3(-0.5) mm wide disc: at first small and punctiform, finally open, plane, yellowish or reddish brown, with thin or thick, smooth, persisting proper hymenium: hyaline, 100-130(-200) µm high, IKI+ blue; sub-hymenium: hyaline, IKI+ blue Pycnidia: immersed, simple, hyaline, pyriform to ovoid Spot tests: all negative Secondary products: none detected. Substrate and ecology: on soil or mosses over rocks in open situations World distribution: North America, Europe, and India Sonoran distribution: central and southern Arizona, southern California, and Baja California.