Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2007. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 3.
Life habit: lichenized Thallus: crustose, often leprose, rarely granular areolate, composed of goniocysts and interconnecting hyphae surface: bright yellow-green to whitish gray photobiont: primary one a Trebouxia-like green alga or Stichococcus, secondary one absent Ascomata: apothecial, convex to ±globose, sometimes tuberculate, lacking a thalline exciple disc: variously colored exciple: indistinct or as a byssoid, white rim at base of apothecia epihymenium: not sharply delimited, often not evident hymenium: shallow, up to 25(-35) µm tall, variously pigmented, I+ blue; paraphyses: simple to sparingly branched, ±conglutinated in K; tips: not or only slightly thickened hypothecium: colorless to pigmented asci: Porpidia-like, 8-spored ascospores: hyaline, simple or, rarely, 1-septate, oblong-ovoid to dacryoid Conidiomata: hyphomycetous; conidiogenous cells arising from thallus surface conidia: simple, ovoid to pyriform Secondary metabolites: pulvinic acid derivatives, depsides, and dibenzofuranes Geography: widely distributed, mainly in temperate habitats, both hemispheres.