Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Life habit: lichenized Thallus: placodioid, clearly forming rosettes, adnate to loosely adnate, lobate peripherally lobes: flat to convex, sometimes with secondary lobes formed centrally upper surface: bright yellow to golden yellow to red orange, smooth to somewhat rugulose, sometimes somewhat shiny, pseudocyphellae lacking, isidia and soredia lacking upper cortex: paraplectenchymatous, thin, the direction of the individual hyphae is easily observed medulla: loose, either white and without granules, or yellow (at least in part) from yellow granules photobiont: primary one a chlorococcoid alga, secondary photobiont absent lower cortex: absent centrally or absent throughout, paraplectenchymatous, similar to the upper cortex lower surface: yellow peripherally but becoming pale yellow centrally, with or without stout hapters peripherally Ascomata: apothecial, lecanorine, sessile to substipitate; margin: concolorous with the thallus, persistent, smooth to somewhat crenulate; disc: darker yellow than the thallus; epithecium: yellow-brown, granular; hymenium: colorless below, I+ blue; paraphyses: simple, cylindrical or with somewhat swollen tips, sometimes anastomosing below, septate; hypothecium: colorless asci: clavate, Candelaria-type, 8-spored ascospores: simple, narrowly ellipsoid to weakly kidney-shaped, colorless Conidiomata: pycnidial, concolorous with the thallus or darker yellow (walls pale), immersed or appearing as raised warts on the thallus surface conidia: narrowly ellipsoid, colorless Secondary metabolites: pulvinic acid derivatives present in colored parts Geography: from northern South America to southern USA and Namibia in Africa Substrate: on calcium-free rocks in arid regions and where arid microclimates occur.