Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2004. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 2.
Life habit: lichenicolous on lichens and on colonies of free-living algae, or living saprophytically Thallus: immersed photobiont: absent Ascomata: apothecial, black, sessile or stalked; true exciple: well developed, dark, composed of paraplectenchymatous or thick-walled hyphae mazaedium: with an aeruginose tinge; paraphyses: sparse, thick-walled asci: broadly ellipsoid, formed in chains from ascogenous hyphae without croziers, deliquescing at maturity ascospores: 1-3(-7)-septate, with a distinctive ornamentation of spirally arranged ridges developing after the asci break down forming a dry green-black spore mass Conidiomata: pycnidial, frequent in some species, +globose and sessile, black; conidiogenous cells: +cylindrical, arising singly, enteroblastic with distinct broad collarettes conidia: terminal, formed singly, ellipsoid to subglobose, colorless, simple, extruded as a slimy drop Secondary metabolites: ascospores, true exciple and stalk contain unidentified pigments, which are generally green in acidic and red-brown in alkaline solutions (N+ green, K+ red-brown) Substrate: on lichens, among free-living algae, or saprobic, on bark, wood and rocks in humid and shaded sites Geography: widely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere; two species occur in the Southern Hemisphere. Apothecia: 0.4-1 mm high stalk: occasionally branched, black, 0.06-0.12 mm wide, dull black with coarsely granular surface; outer part: formed of irregular groups of sclerotized hyphae; inner part: formed of short, strongly arched and interwoven, thick-walled hyphae forming an almost paraplectenchymatous tissue capitulum: mazaedium with sclerotized hyphae, ascospore mass green-black, not taller than width of head, epruinose; paraphyses: dark, sclerotized, branched and anastomosing, with coarse surface, persisting exciple: poorly developed, particularly in the central part, in section reddish brown Pycnidia: absent spot tests: exciple K+ dark yellowish brown, N+ yellowish brown; stalk K+ yellowish brown, N+ pale aeruginose. Substrate and ecology: on wood of ancient oaks, pine or other conifer trunks, parasitic or saprobic, among colonies of unidentified green algae or without any apparent association with algae World distribution: Europe and North America Sonoran distribution: California.