Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Life habit: lichenized Thallus: crustose, superficial to partially immersed, attached by the whole lower surface upper surface: membranous to rimose, rimose-areolate to uneven warted; soredia and isidia absent photobiont: primary one a chlorococcoid alga, secondary photobiont absent Ascomata: perithecial, ± immersed but appearing as prominent warts, pale to brownish, globose; exciple: colorless below, brownish above and around the ostiole; open involucrellum present in only a few species; hamathecium: composed of persistent paraphyses, richly branched and anastomosed; periphysoids towards the inner side of the ostiole; periphyses absent asci: bitunicate, fissitunicate dehiscence, thick-walled, with non-amyloid tholus; apex: without an ocular chamber; 2 (-8)-spored ascospores: submuriform to strongly muriform, colorless, rarely becoming pale yellow-brown, or brown, ellipsoid to narrowly ellipsoid or fusiform Conidiomata: pycnidial, immersed, of the Roccella-type conidia: filiform Secondary metabolites: none detected Geography: world-wide Substrate: bark, non-calciferous rocks (often maritime or oceanic habitats). Notes: It is characterized by its crustose thallus, very thick-walled asci without an ocular chamber, fissitunicate dehiscence, submuriform to strongly muriform ascospores, persistent, branched-anastomosed paraphyses and the presence of periphysoids. The related genus Chromatochlamys is distinguished by asci with an ocular chamber. The similar genus Protothelenella is distinguished by asci with an amyloid tholus and an amyloid hamathecium.