Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Life habit: lichenized Thallus: crustose, verrucose, attached by the whole lower surface upper surface: dirty whitish or pale gray to pale brownish, membranous to cracked; soredia and isidia absent photobiont: primary one a chlorococcoid alga, secondary photobiont absent Ascomata: perithecial, ± immersed, thick walled, pale to brownish; exciple: globose, colorless to brown; hamathecium: composed of persistent paraphyses, delicate, branched and/or anastomosed, especially towards the base and at the apices; conglutinate periphysoids towards the inner side of the ostiole asci: bitunicate with fissitunicate dehiscence, thick-walled, with non-amyloid tholus; apex rounded with an obvious ocular chamber, 2 (-8)-spored; ascospores: submuriform to strongly muriform, cylindrical-ellipsoid or fusiform-elongate, the outer wall scarcely thicker than the septa, colorless to pale brownish Conidiomata: not seen Secondary metabolites: none detected Geography: predominately (sub)mediterranean to cool temperate and boreal Substrate: encrusting mosses or on non-calciferous rocks.