Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Life habit: lichenized, saprophytic or lichenicolous Thallus: indistinct to crustose, superficial, attached by the whole lower surface upper surface: membrane-like, evanescent, granular to cracked-areolate; soredia and isidia absent photobiont: primary one a chlorococcoid alga (Elliptochloris bilobata), secondary photobiont absent Ascomata: perithecial, sessile to immersed, globose to pear-shaped, pale brown to blackish; exciple: mostly pale brown to pale green towards the base, brown to greenish blue in upper part, of strongly anastomosing, conglutinate hyphae with narrow lumina; involucrellum: absent; hamathecium: composed of perisistent paraphysoids, strongly branched and anastomosed, amyloid; periphysoids absent asci: bitunicate, fissitunicate dehiscence, thick-walled, with an I+ blue ± layered tholus, 6 (-8)-spored ascospores: four-celled, submuriform to strongly muriform, ellipsoid to narrowly ellipsoid or fusiform, the outer wall distinctly thicker than the septa, colorless Conidiomata: not seen Secondary metabolites: none detected Geography: Northern Hemisphere Substrate: on acid substrata including rocks, soil, mosses, plant detritus and on rotten wood or lichenicolous on Solorina, Peltigera and Cladonia squamules. Notes: The genus is characterized by bitunicate asci with an amyloid tholus.