Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Life habit: lichenized, lichenicolous or not Thallus: squamulose squamules: up to 4 mm diam., scattered when young, later ± adjacent, rounded or becoming slightly elongated, weakly to moderately convex upper surface: white to pale gray, often with a green tinge, ± entirely covered by granular pruina, dull, with shallow fissures, lacking pores and pseudocyphellae upper cortex: up to 50 µm high, containing calcium oxalate margin: concolorous with upper surface Apothecia: up to 1.5 (-2.5) mm diam., remaining ± plane and marginate, faintly pruinose or densely pruinose; exciple: dark gray in the rim, reddish brown in inner part; hypothecium: reddish brown; epithecium: gray (K+ violet, N+ violet) asci: clavate, 8-spored ascospores: fusiform, 1-septate, 14.5-21 x 3.5-5 µm Pycnidia: not seen Spot tests: all negative Secondary metabolites: none or undetermined terpenoids (chemotype D). Host: cyanolichens Substrate and ecology: on soil and rock, mainly on steep to overhanging rock walls, usually somewhat shady, at 1620-1920 m World distribution: rare in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah Sonoran distribution: northern Arizona.