Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Life habit: lichenized, lichenicolous or not Thallus: squamulose squamules: up to 3 mm diam., scattered to adjacent or irregularly imbricate, rounded to elongated, often lobed, weakly concave to weakly convex upper surface: dark olive-brown, epruinose, shiny, smooth, lacking pores and pseudocyphellae upper cortex: up to 70 µm high, lacking calcium oxalate margin: concolorous with upper surface Apothecia: up to 1 mm diam., remaining ± plane and marginate, epruinose; exciple: dark gray in the rim, pale to colorless in inner part; hypothecium: pale brown to colorless; epithecium: gray (K+ violet, N+ violet) asci: clavate, 8-spored ascospores: bacilliform to acicular, (1-) 3-septate, 17-42.5 x 3.5-5 µm Pycnidia: laminal, immersed conidia: filiform Spot tests: all negative Secondary metabolites: none detected. Host: cyanolichens Substrate and ecology: on soil and rock in ± open habitats, up to 1250 m World distribution: southwestern North America and South America Sonoran distribution: rather common in southern Arizona, coastal California, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Chihuahua, Sinaloa, and Sonora.