Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2004. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 2.
Life habit: lichenized upper cortex: paraplectechymatous when well developed, but sometimes only composed of a thin gelatinous epinecral layer photobionts: primary photobiont a Trebouxia, secondary photobiont absent; algal layer: horizontally continuous; algal cells 8-12 µm in diam. lower cortex: absent; lower surface: not distinguishable from the substrate, attached by bundles of hyphae penetrating the substrate Ascomata: apothecial, mostly sessile Conidomata: pycnidial, immersed in thalline warts; wall: hyaline except for brown to blackish pigmentation around the ostiole Geography: tropical to subtropical in Australasia, Asia, North, Central and South America Substrate: non-calciferous rock, mainly bark, wood and rarely mosses. areoles: mostly contiguous and fused, irregular, angular, often warted-wrinkled, plane to subconvex World distribution: northern Mexico from Coahuila to Chihuahua Sonoran distribution: locally common in the Sierra Madre Occidental of Chihuahua. upper surface: yellow or yellowish gray, whitish gray or white World and Sonoran distribution: probably a Sonoran endemic along the Sierra Madre Occidental in Chihuahua and Sinaloa (and adjacent areas of Durango).