TYPE. “Habitat ad oras occid. Americae borealis. D. Menzies” (Acharius 1803)
Description.Life form: lichenized fungus.
Thallus foliose, appressed or pendant; lobes inflated, 5-10 cm x 3-6 mm; tips mostly hemispherical, sometimes perforate. Lobes relatively short and round on horizontal surfaces becoming elongated on vertical surfaces; irregularly branched, branches alternatively constricted and bloated, with several tiny round lobules on the margins. Upper surface whitish gray or pale brownish, strongly convex throughout, often swollen. Vegetative diaspores absent. Lower surface black, shiny, wrinkled; rhizines absent. Photobiont trebouxioid green alga. Medullary ceiling dark throughout. Ascomata lecanorine apothecia, laminal, stipitate; disk flat to concave, brown; Asci 8-spored; ascospores simple, hyaline, spherical to ellipsoid.
Substrate and Habitat. Corticolous on conifer bark or lignicolous on dry wood in exposed and shaded environments.
Distribution. East Asia (Japan, Russia), eastern and western North America; in North Carolina found in the Blue Ridge ecoregion.
Acharius, E. (1803) Methodus qua Omnes Detectos Lichenes Secundum Organa Carpomorpha ad Genera, Species et Varietates Redigere atque Observationibus Illustrare Tentavit Erik Acharius. 394 pp.
Brodo, I.M., S. Duran Sharnoff & S. Sharnoff. (2001) Lichens of North America. Yale University Press, New Haven & London. 795 pp.
Goward, T., B. McCune & D. Meidinger (1994) The Lichens of British Columbia. Illustrated Keys. Part 1 - Foliose and Squamulose Species. Special Report Series, 8, Research Program, B.C. Ministry of Forests, Victoria. 181 pp.