Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Thallus: foliose to subcaespitose, very loosely adnate, up to 7 (exceptionally to 9) cm across, subdichotomously lobate lobes: 0.5-2.5 (-4) mm broad, flat to involute, inferquently ciliate; cilia: 0.5-1 (-2) mm long, simple or sparingly branched upper surface: pale, sometimes inconspicuously white-stippled, sometimes blackened in part, sorediate soredia: farinose to granular, in soralia at the lobe tips or along the subterminal edge of the lobes lower surface: black or pale- or brown-colored at the tips of the lobes, smooth or obscurely wirnkled transversely, particularly on the older lobes Apothecia: very rare, to 1 mm diam. asci: clavate, 8-spored ascospores: not seen Pycnidia: infrequent, to 0.15 mm diam. conidia: bacilliform, straight, 4-6 x 1 µm Spot tests: upper cortex K+ yellow, C-, KC-, P+ yellow; medulla K+ yellow then red, C-, P+ orange Secondary metabolites: cortex with atranorin and chloroatranorin, medulla with salazinic acid (major), consalazinic acid (minor), galbinic acid (accessory) and a fatty acid. Substrate and ecology: on trees and shrubs, especially angiosperms World distribution: pantropical and extending into adjacent subtropical regions, particularly in the mountains Sonoran distribution: Sierra Madre Occidental of Sinaloa.