Lichens of North Carolina, USA
Includes taxa from following child checklists:
Authors: Gary B. Perlmutter
Citation: Perlmutter, G.B. (2005) Lichen checklist for North Carolina, USA. Evansia 22(2): 51-77.
Locality: North Carolina, USA (35.692990, -79.211430)
Abstract:

This is an updated checklist from that originally published in Evansia (Perlmutter 2005, Perlmutter & Greene 2005), which was later posted and regularly updated on the Checklists of Lichens Webportal (now defunct) by Tasslo Feuerer at the University of Hamburg, Germany until its transfer here. This checklist includes taxa from published sources in the literature and vouchers from the UNC Herbarium (NCU), and is continuously updaated as a live document with new discoveries and taxonomic changes as they appear in the literature. Another version of this checklist is being developed as part of the North Carolina Biodiversity Project website, with county occurrences based on records available in the lichen collections participating in the Consortium of Lichen Herbaria, as well as literature reports.

 

 

Notes: last updated 09 September 2022; Please contact gary.perlmutter[a]gmail.com for comments or corrections.

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Families: 107
Genera: 340
Species: 1207
Total Taxa: 1216

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Blue Ridge, source: Lendemer, J.C., R.C. Harris and E.A. Tripp. 2013. The lichens and allied fungi of Great Smoky Mountains National Park: an annotated checklist with comprehensive keys. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden Volume 104: 1-152.; R. C. Harris 61163 [NY], J. C. Lendemer 20359A [NY], J. P. Dey 1269 [NY], J. P. Dey 30135 [NY]
[Lecidea parmeliarum f. microsperma (Tul.) Stizenb.]
[Abrothallus parasiticus (Ach.) Nyl., Abrothallus parmeliarum f. parmeliarum (Sommerf.) Nyl., Abrothallus parmeliarum var. parmeliarum (Sommerf.) Nyl., Abrothallus smithii Tul., Buellia parmeliarum (Sommerf.) Tuck., Buellia smithii (Tul.) Jatta, Buelliella parmeliarum (Sommerf.) Fink, Endocarpon parasiticum Ach., Lecidea parmeliarum Sommerf., Lecidea parmeliarum f. parmeliarum Sommerf., Parmelia saxatilis f. parasitica (Ach.) Bosch]
[Biatorina arnoldii subsp. delutula (Nyl.) A.L. Sm., Catillaria delutula (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Dimerella modesta (Zahlbr.) Grummann, Lecidea delutula Nyl., Lecidea modesta Hegetschw. nom. illeg., Microphiale modesta (Zahlbr.) Lettau, Secoliga modesta (Zahlbr.) Arnold]
Blue Ridge, Coastal Plain, source: Lendemer, J.C., R.C. Harris and E.A. Tripp. 2013. The lichens and allied fungi of Great Smoky Mountains National Park: an annotated checklist with comprehensive keys. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden Volume 104: 1-152.
[Graphina peplophora M. Wirth & Hale]
Reported as Graphina peplophora, source: Lendemer, J.C. & R. Yahr. 2004. A checklist of the lichens collected during the Tuckerman Workshop #12, Outer Banks, North Carolina, USA. Evansia 21(3): 118 - 136.
[Lecanora chrysops Tuck.]
Piedmont / Fall Line; Perlmutter, Gary B. 1822 [NCU]
[Acarospora cartilaginea H. Magn., Acarospora squamulosa f. albomarginata (Cromb.) A.L. Sm., Acarospora squamulosa f. marginata Cromb., Acarospora squamulosa f. squamulosa (Ach.) Trevis., Acarospora squamulosa var. squamulosa (Ach.) Trevis., Acarospora veronensis var. fuscata (Nyl.) Arnold, Lecanora badia var. fuscata Ach., Lecanora fuscata Röhl., Lecanora fuscata var. fuscata Nyl., Lecanora fuscata var. pelioscyphoides Nyl., Lecanora fuscata var. peliscyphoides Nyl., Lichen fuscatus Schrad. nom. cons.]
Piedmont / Fall Line, Paratype from Wake County, source: Lumbsch et al. 2011. One hundred new species of lichenized fungi: a signature of undiscovered global diversity. Phytotaxa 18: 1-127.; Perlmutter, Gary B. 2216 [NCU]
[Lecanora obpallens Nyl. ex Hasse]
Blue Ridge, source: Lendemer, J.C. & E.A. Tripp. 2008. Contributions to the lichen flora of North Carolina: a preliminary checklist of the lichens of Gorges State Park. The Bryologist 111(1): 57-67.; E. A. Tripp 3733 [NY]
Piedmont, source: Lendemer, J.C. 2010. Contributions to the lichen flora of Pennsylvania – further new and interesting reports of lichens and lichenicolous fungi. Evansia 27(2): 47-66.
[Arthopyrenia finkii Zahlbr., Arthopyrenia macrospora Fink, Pyrenula megalospora Fink]
source: Harris, R.C. and D. Ladd. 2005. Preliminary draft: Ozark lichens (unpublished manuscript prepared for trial use in the 14th Tuckerman Lichen Workshop).
[Agonimiella H. Harada]
Wake County, source: Perlmutter, G.B. and J.C. Lendemer. 2008. Contributions to the lichen flora of North Carolina: A preliminary checklist of the lichens and allied fungi at William B. Umstead State Park. Opuscula Philolichenum 5: 67-76.
[Phaeophyscia opuntiella (Buschardt & Poelt) Hafellner, Physcia opuntiella Buschardt & Poelt]
Blue Ridge, Coastal Plain, source: Lendemer, J.C., R.C. Harris and E.A. Tripp. 2013. The lichens and allied fungi of Great Smoky Mountains National Park: an annotated checklist with comprehensive keys. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden Volume 104: 1-152.
[Cetraria aurescens Tuck., Nephromopsis aurescens (Tuck.) Divakar, A. Crespo & Lumbsch, Tuckermannopsis aurescens (Tuck.) Hale, Tuckermanopsis aurescens (Tuck.) Hale]
Blue Ridge, Piedmont, source: Perlmutter, G.B. 2006. Lichen inventory of the North Carolina Piedmont. Castanea 71(4): 282-294.
Blue Ridge, source: Dey, J.P. 1978. Fruticose and foliose lichens of the high-mountain areas of the southern Appalachians. The Bryologist 81(1): 1 - 93.; Wetmore, C. 42270 [MIN]
[Alectoria luteola Mont., Alectoria sarmentosa f. sarmentosa (Ach.) Ach., Alectoria sarmentosa subsp. sarmentosa (Ach.) Ach., Alectoria sarmentosa var. sarmentosa (Ach.) Ach., Alectoria stigmata Bystrek, Alectoria subsarmentosa Stirt., Bryopogon ochroleucus var. sarmentosus (Ach.) Rabenh., Bryopogon sarmentosus (Ach.) Link, Cornicularia sarmentosa (Ach.) DC., Cornicularia sarmentosa var. sarmentosa (Ach.) DC., Eualectoria sarmentosa (Ach.) Gyeln., Eualectoria sarmentosa var. dichotoma (Hoffm.) Gyeln., Eualectoria sarmentosa var. hypocyphellata Gyeln., Eualectoria sarmentosa var. sarmentosa (Ach.) Gyeln., Evernia sarmentosa (Ach.) Fr., Lichen sarmentosus Ach., Parmelia sarmentosa (Ach.) Ach.]
Blue Ridge, source: Degelius,G N 1941: Contributions to the Lichen flora of North America II. The lichen flora of the Great Smoky Mountains. - Arkiv för BotanikArk. Bot. 30A, Nr. 3: 1-80.
[Graphis sterlingiana E. Tripp & Lendemer]
Blue Ridge, source: Lendemer, J.C., R.C. Harris and E.A. Tripp. 2013. The lichens and allied fungi of Great Smoky Mountains National Park: an annotated checklist with comprehensive keys. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden Volume 104: 1-152.; E. A. Tripp 3835 [COLO]
[Graphis striatula (Ach.) Sprengel, Graphis striatula var. sublaevis Nyl., Hysterium striatulum (Ach.) Fr., Opegrapha striatula Ach.]
[Alyxoria diaphora (Ach.) Gray, Alyxoria notha (Ach.) Gray, Graphis notha (Ach.) Trevis., Graphis varia (Pers.) Branth & Rostr., Lichen nothus Ach., Lichen signatus Ach., Opegrapha chlorina Pers., Opegrapha diaphora (Ach.) Ach., Opegrapha diaphora f. diaphora (Ach.) Ach., Opegrapha diaphora f. herbicola Nyl., Opegrapha diaphora f. signata (Ach.) J. Nowak, Opegrapha diaphora f. tigrina (Ach.) J. Nowak, Opegrapha diaphora var. chlorina (Pers.) H. Olivier, Opegrapha diaphora var. diaphora (Ach.) Ach., Opegrapha diaphora var. mexicana B. de Lesd. ex Ruiz{?}, Opegrapha diaphora var. signata (Ach.) Ach., Opegrapha diaphora var. stellata Sántha, Opegrapha diaphora var. tigrina (Ach.) H. Olivier, Opegrapha diaphora var. tridens (Ach.) H. Olivier, Opegrapha lichenoides Pers., Opegrapha lichenoides f. cerebrina (Erichsen) J. Nowak, Opegrapha lichenoides f. chlorina (Pers.) Erichsen, Opegrapha lichenoides f. lichenoides Pers., Opegrapha lichenoides f. octomera Redinger, Opegrapha lichenoides f. populina (Moug.) Zahlbr., Opegrapha lichenoides var. cerebrina Erichsen, Opegrapha lichenoides var. chlorina (Pers.) Redinger, Opegrapha lichenoides var. lichenoides Pers., Opegrapha lichenoides var. populina (Moug.) Erichsen, Opegrapha lichenoides var. subchondrina Redinger, Opegrapha notha (Ach.) Ach., Opegrapha notha var. notha (Ach.) Ach., Opegrapha notha var. populina Moug., Opegrapha notha var. spaniota Ach., Opegrapha pulicaris (Hoffm.) Schrader, Opegrapha pulicaris f. lutescens (Ach.) Nyl., Opegrapha pulicaris f. minuta (Chevall.) H. Olivier, Opegrapha pulicaris f. phaea (Ach.) H. Olivier, Opegrapha pulicaris f. pollinii (A. Massal.) Redinger, Opegrapha pulicaris f. pulicaris (Hoffm.) Schrad., Opegrapha rimalis Pers. ex Ach., Opegrapha rimalis var. betulina H. Olivier, Opegrapha rimalis var. rimalis Ach., Opegrapha signata (Ach.) Ach., Opegrapha signata var. beta Ach., Opegrapha signata var. signata (Ach.) Ach., Opegrapha signata var. tigrina Ach., Opegrapha tridens Ach., Opegrapha varia Pers., Opegrapha varia f. pulicaris, Opegrapha varia f. varia Pers., Opegrapha varia f. xanthocarpa Zwackh, Opegrapha varia var. chlorina (Pers.) H. Olivier, Opegrapha varia var. diaphora (Ach.) Fr., Opegrapha varia var. glomerulans Müll.Arg., Opegrapha varia var. heterocarpa Müll.Arg., Opegrapha varia var. lichenoides (Pers.) Hepp, Opegrapha varia var. notha (Ach.) Fr., Opegrapha varia var. phaea (Ach.) Rabenh., Opegrapha varia var. pulicaris (Hoffm.) Fr., Opegrapha varia var. rimalis (Ach.) Fr., Opegrapha varia var. varia, Scaphis notha (Ach.) Eschw.]
[Buellia langloisii Imshaug]
source: Lendemer, J.C. & R. Yahr. 2004. A checklist of the lichens collected during the Tuckerman Workshop #12, Outer Banks, North Carolina, USA. Evansia 21(3): 118 - 136.; W. R. Buck 43844 [NY], Perlmutter, Gary B. 4311 [NCU]
[Rinodina milliaria Tuck., Rinodina milliaria f. incrassata H. Magn., Rinodina milliaria f. milliaria Tuck., Rinodina milliaria f. obscura H. Magn., Rinodina milliaria f. tenuis H. Magn.]
source: Lendemer, J.C. & R. Yahr. 2004. A checklist of the lichens collected during the Tuckerman Workshop #12, Outer Banks, North Carolina, USA. Evansia 21(3): 118 - 136.; Perlmutter, Gary B. 4153 [NCU], P. F. May 1996-00-00 [FH]
[Buellia myriocarpa var. polyspora Willey, Buellia polyspora (Will.) Vain., Buellia punctata var. polyspora (Willey) Fink]
[Abrothallus thallophilus (Ohlert) Arnold, Amandinea myriocarpa (DC.) M. Choisy nom. inval., Buellia myriocarpa (DC.) Mudd, Buellia myriocarpa f. areolata (Leight.) A.L. Sm., Buellia myriocarpa f. depauperata (Anzi) Walt. Watson, Buellia myriocarpa f. ecrustacea (Leight.) A.L. Sm., Buellia myriocarpa f. leprosa (Leight.) A.L. Sm., Buellia myriocarpa f. myriocarpa (DC.) De Not., Buellia myriocarpa f. opegraphina (Leight.) A.L. Sm., Buellia myriocarpa f. punctata (Hoffm.) Boistel, Buellia myriocarpa var. myriocarpa (DC.) De Not., Buellia ocellata f. depauperata Anzi, Buellia praecavenda (Nyl. ex Cromb.) Arnold, Buellia punctata (Hoffm.) Mass., Buellia punctata f. areolata (Leight.) Zahlbr., Buellia punctata f. depauperata (Anzi) Zahlbr., Buellia punctata f. ecrustacea (Leight.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univers. 7: 396 (1931), Buellia punctata f. leprosa (Leight.) Zahlbr., Buellia punctata f. opegraphina (Leight.) Zahlbr., Buellia punctata f. punctata (Hoffm.) A. Massal., Buellia punctata var. punctata (Hoffm.) A. Massal., Buellia punctiformis f. depauperata (Anzi) Arnold, Buellia punctiformis f. depauperata (Anzi) Szatala nom. inval., Buellia punctiformis f. punctata (Hoffm.) Vain., Buellia punctiformis var. myriocarpa (DC.) Arnold, Buellia punctiformis var. punctata (Hoffm.) Lynge, Buellia stigmatea f. depauperata Anzi, Buellia verruculosa f. depauperata (Anzi) Zahlbr., Catocarpus myriocarpus (DC.) Hasse, Catocarpus myriocarpus f. ecrustaceus (Leight.) Hasse, Karschia myriocarpa (DC.) Sacc. & Traverso, Karschia myriocarpa var. myriocarpa (DC.) Sacc. & Traverso, Karschia thalloides sensu auct. brit. (as '(Hepp) Rehm'), Karschia thallophila (Ohlert) Rehm, Lecidea aequata var. depauperata (Anzi) Stizenb., Lecidea disciformis var. myriocarpa (DC.) Nyl., Lecidea myriocarpa (DC.) Röhl., Lecidea myriocarpa f. areolata Leight., Lecidea myriocarpa f. ecrustacea Leight., Lecidea myriocarpa f. leprosa Leight., Lecidea myriocarpa f. myriocarpa (DC.) Röhl., Lecidea myriocarpa f. opegraphina Leight., Lecidea myriocarpa f. punctata (Hoffm.) Vain., Lecidea parasema f. myriocarpa (DC.) Ach., Lecidea parasema f. punctata (Hoffm.) Ach., Lecidea parasema var. myriocarpa (DC.) Ach., Lecidea parasema var. punctata (Hoffm.) Ach., Lecidea praecavenda Nyl. ex Cromb., Lecidea punctata (Hoffm.) Flörke, Lecidea punctata var. punctata (Hoffm.) Flörke, Lecidea thallophila (Ohlert) Ohlert, Lecidella thallophila Ohlert, Lichen myriocarpus (DC.) Lam., Patellaria myriocarpa DC., Patellaria parasema var. myriocarpa (DC.) Duby, Patellaria parasema var. punctata (Hoffm.) Duby, Rinodina aequata f. depauperata (Anzi) H. Olivier, Verrucaria punctata Hoffm., Verrucaria punctata var. punctata Hoffm.]
[Sphaeria bufonia Berk. & Broome]
Mixed Mesic Hardwood Forest; shaded; Substrate: Quercus alba trunk; Perlmutter, Gary B. 1961 [NCU], Perlmutter, Gary B. 923 [NCU]
[Borrera crinalis Schleich. ex Schaer., Physcia ciliaris var. crinalis (Torss.) Schaer.]
Blue Ridge, source: Gadd, E.T. and J.T. Finnegan (ed.s). 2012. Natural Heritage Program list of rare plant species of North Carolina. www.ncnhp.org.; P.K. Armstrong 1597 [WIS]
[Anaptychia aquila auct. N.Americ. non (Ach.) A. Massal., Anaptychia palmatula (Michx.) Vain., Physcia detonsa (Fr.) Nyl., Psoroma palmulata Michx.]
[Ditremis Clem., Lembidium Körb., Microthelia Körb.]
[Acrocordia biformis (Borrer) Arnold, Acrocordia conformis (Nyl.) Hellb., Amphisphaeria biformis (Borrer) Rehm, Arthopyrenia biformis (Borrer) Müll. Arg., Arthopyrenia biformis f. biformis (Borrer) A. Massal., Arthopyrenia biformis f. microcarpa Erichsen, Arthopyrenia biformis var. biformis (Borrer) A. Massal., Arthopyrenia biformis var. macrocarpa (Körb.) Keissl., Arthopyrenia byssacea (Taylor) A.L. Sm., Arthopyrenia conformis (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Arthopyrenia conformis f. conformis (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Arthopyrenia conformis f. rhypontoides (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Arthopyrenia parvula Zahlbr., Ditremis biformis (Borrer) R.C. Harris, Leiophloea biformis (Borrer) Trevis., Pharcidia thallophila (Cooke) Vouaux, Sagedia biformis (Borrer) Müll. Arg., Segestrella biformis (Borrer) Branth & Rostr., Sphaerella thallophila (Cooke) Cooke, Sphaeria thallophila Cooke, Thelidium biformis (Borrer) Mudd, Trimmatothele umbellulariae Herre, Verrucaria biformis Borrer, Verrucaria byssacea Taylor, Verrucaria conformis Nyl., Verrucaria conformis f. conformis Nyl., Verrucaria conformis f. rhypontoides Nyl.]
source: Lendemer, J.C. & R. Yahr. 2004. A checklist of the lichens collected during the Tuckerman Workshop #12, Outer Banks, North Carolina, USA. Evansia 21(3): 118 - 136.; Perlmutter, Gary B. 4116 [NCU]
[Arthopyrenia carinthiaca J. Steiner, Arthopyrenia dimidiata Fink, Ditremis carinthiaca (J. Steiner) R.C. Harris, Paraphysothele carinthiaca (J. Steiner) Keissl.]
[Arthopyrenia distans (Willey) Zahlbr., Ditremis distans (Willey) R.C. Harris]
Blue Ridge, source: unpublished checklist provided by R.C. Harris (NY).
[Arthopyrenia leucochlora Müll.Arg., Ditremis leucochlora (Müll. Arg.) R.C. Harris]
[Anisomeridium juistense (Erichsen) R.C. Harris, Anisomeridium nyssigenum (Ellis & Everh.) R.C. Harris, Anisomeridium willeyanum (R.C. Harris) R.C. Harris, Apiospora polypori Ellis & Everh., Arthopyrenia willeyana R.C. Harris, Ditremis nyssogena [as 'nyssaegena'] (Ellis & Everh.) R.C. Harris 1990, Paraphysothele juistensis (Erichsen) Servít, Thelidium juistense Erichsen, Zignoëlla nyssogena Ellis & Everh.]
[Arthopyrenia subprostans (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Ditremis subprostans (Nyl.) R.C. Harris, Leiophloea subprostans (Nyl.) Trevis., Pyrenula subprostans (Nyl.) Tuck., Verrucaria subprostans Nyl.]
riparian forest; shady; substrate: Ligustrum chinense trunk; Perlmutter, Gary B. 616 [NCU], Perlmutter, Gary B. 753 [NCU]
[Anthracothecium nanum (Zahlbr.) R.C. Harris, Pleurotheliopsis australiensis (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Pleurothelium australiense Müll. Arg.]
Blue Ridge, Piedmont, Coastal Plain; Perlmutter, Gary B. 889 [NCU]
[Anthracothecium australiense (Müll. Arg.) Aptroot, Pleurotheliopsis australiensis (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Pleurothelium australiense Müll. Arg.]
Basic Oak-Hickory Forest; shaded; Substrate: Quercus alba sapling; J. C. Lendemer 39938 [NY], Perlmutter, Gary B. 889 [NCU]
Blue Ridge, source: Gadd, E.T. and J.T. Finnegan (ed.s). 2012. Natural Heritage Program list of rare plant species of North Carolina. www.ncnhp.org.; McDonald, T. 812 [MIN]
[Lichen colpodes Ach., Parmelia colpodes (Ach.) Ach., Parmelia colpodes var. colpodes (Ach.) Ach., Parmelia colpodes var. sphaeroidispora F. Wilson, Parmelia cristulata Ach.]
Blue Ridge, Piedmont, source: Lendemer, J.C. & E.A. Tripp. 2008. Contributions to the lichen flora of North Carolina: a preliminary checklist of the lichens of Gorges State Park. The Bryologist 111(1): 57-67.
[Anzia japonica var. ornata Zahlbr.]
Coastal Plain, source: Yoshimura, I. & A.J. Sharp. 1969. Some lichens of the southern Appalachians and Mexico. The Bryologist 71(2): 108 - 113.; Culberson, William, L. 10362 [DUKE]
[Imbricaria incurva (Pers.) DC., Imbricaria incurva f. incurva (Pers.) DC., Imbricaria incurva f. nigrita (Flot.) Flot., Lichen incurvus Pers., Lobaria incurva (Pers.) Ach., Parmelia incurva Pers., Parmelia incurva f. incurva (Pers.) Fr., Parmelia incurva f. lignicola Räsänen, Parmelia multifida Schaer., Placodium incurvum (Pers.) Frege, Xanthoparmelia incurva (Pers.) Hale]
Blue Ridge, Reported as Parmelia incurva, source: Dey, J.P. 1978. Fruticose and foliose lichens of the high-mountain areas of the southern Appalachians. The Bryologist 81(1): 1 - 93.
[Allarthoniomyces E.A. Thomas, Allarthotheliomyces Cif. & Tomas., Allarthothelium (Vain.) Zahlbr., Ameropeltomyces Bat. & H. Maia, Arthoniomyces E.A. Thomas ex Cif. & Tomas., Arthoniopsis Müll. Arg., Asterotrema Müll. Arg., Aulaxinomyces Cif. & Tomas., Celidiopsis A. Massal., Celidium Tul., Charcotia Hue, Coccopeziza Har. & P. Karst., Conida A. Massal., Craterolechia A. Massal., Lecideopsis (Almq.) Rehm, Merarthonis Clem., Phlegmophiale Zahlbr., Spilodium A. Massal., Miscell. Lichenol.: 14 (1856), Tomaselliella Cif., Tomaselliellomyces Cif., Trachylia Fr.]
[Arthothelium albovirescens (Nyl.) Fink]
[Allarthonia apatetica (A. Massal.) Lettau, Arthonia exilis var. apatetica (A. Massal.) J. Nowak, Catillaria apatetica A. Massal., Coniangium apateticum (A. Massal.) A. Massal.]
Piedmont/Fall Line; Perlmutter, Gary B. 2565 [NCU]
[Arthonia willeyi Tuck.]
source: Harris, R.C. and D. Ladd. 2005. Preliminary draft: Ozark lichens (unpublished manuscript prepared for trial use in the 14th Tuckerman Lichen Workshop).; H.A. Green 2 [NEB]
[Arthothelium ferax Müll.Arg., Arthothelium interveniens (Nyl.) Zahlbr.]
Coastal Plain, source: Lendemer, J.C. & R. Yahr. 2004. A checklist of the lichens collected during the Tuckerman Workshop #12, Outer Banks, North Carolina, USA. Evansia 21(3): 118 - 136.; J. C. Lendemer 31156 [NY], J. C. Lendemer 38673 [NY], R. C. Harris 57257 [NY], J. C. Lendemer 34638 [NY], more...
[Coniarthonia kermesina (R.C. Harris, E. Tripp & Lendemer) Aptroot & Ertz]
Blue Ridge, Type from Swain Co., source: Lendemer, J.C., R.C. Harris and E.A. Tripp. 2013. The lichens and allied fungi of Great Smoky Mountains National Park: an annotated checklist with comprehensive keys. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden Volume 104: 1-152.; R. C. Harris 11116 [NY], J. C. Lendemer 37830 [NY]
maritime forest; partly shady; Substrate: Myrica cerifera twig; Perlmutter, Gary B. 334 [NCU]
[Arthonia lurida f. vinosa (Leight.) Zahlbr., Arthonia pineti Körb., Arthonia pineti var. pineti Körb., Arthonia pineti var. sapineti (Nyl.) H. Olivier, Arthonia vinosa var. pineti (Körb.) Leight., Lecidea emphysa Stirt.]
[Arthopyrenia cinchonae var. cinchonae (Ach.) Müll. Arg., Arthopyrenia nieteriana Müll.Arg., Arthopyrenia planipes Müll.Arg., Constrictolumina cinchonae (Ach.) Lücking, M. P. Nelsen & Aptroot, Didymella cinchonae (Ach.) Vain., Leiophloea cinchonae (Ach.) Riedl, Porina concamerata (Stirt.) Zahlbr., Spermatodium cinchonae (Ach.) Trevis., Verrucaria alboatra var. detergens Nyl., Verrucaria cinchonae Ach., Verrucaria cinchonae var. cinchonae Ach., Verrucaria cinchonae var. fumida Stizenb., Verrucaria concamerata Stirt., Verrucaria prostans Mont.]
source: Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10¢ Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Publ. by the Author, Bronx, N.Y. 192 pp.
[Julella fallaciosa (Arnold) R.C. Harris, Mycoglaena fallaciosa (Stizenb. ex Arnold) Vain., Polyblastia fallaciosa Stizenb. ex Arnold, Polyblastiopsis fallaciosa (Stizenb. ex Arnold) Zahlbr., Pyrenula fallaciosa (Stizenb. ex Arnold) Willey, Verrucaria fallaciosa (Stizenb. ex Arnold) Nyl.]
Mixed Mesic Hardwood Forest with alluvial elements over floodplain; shaded; Substrate: fallen Quercus trunk; Perlmutter, Gary B. 1732 [NCU], Perlmutter, Gary B. 4318 [NCU], Perlmutter, Gary B. 4137 [NCU], Perlmutter, Gary B. 1450 [NCU], more...
[Constrictolumina lyrata (R. C. Harris) Lücking, M. P. Nelsen & Aptroot]
source: Tucker, S.C. & R.C. Harris. 1980. New and noteworthy pyrenocarpous lichens from Louisiana and Florida. The Bryologist 83(1): 1-20.
Coastal Plain, source: Lücking, R., W.R. Buck and E. Rivas Plata. 2007. The lichen family Gomphillaceae (Ostropales) in eastern North America, with notes on hyphophore development in Gomphillus and Gyalideopsis. The Bryologist 110(4): 622-672.
[Arthonia interveniens Nyl., Arthothelium ferax Müll.Arg.]
source: Lendemer, J.C. & R. Yahr. 2004. A checklist of the lichens collected during the Tuckerman Workshop #12, Outer Banks, North Carolina, USA. Evansia 21(3): 118 - 136.
[Arthonia rosacea Anzi, Arthonia ruana A. Massal., Arthonia ruanidea Nyl., Arthoniopsis ruana (A. Massal.) Trevis., Arthothelium dispersum (DC.) Mudd, Arthothelium dispersum f. dispersum (DC.) Mudd, Arthothelium dispersum f. ulcerosum Erichsen, Arthothelium dispersum var. dispersum (DC.) Mudd, Arthothelium dispersum var. olivaceum Erichsen, Arthothelium rosaceum (Anzi) Zahlbr., Arthothelium ruanideum (Nyl.) Arnold, Arthothelium ruanideum f. ruanideum (Nyl.) Arnold, Arthothelium ruanideum f. ulcerosum (Erichsen) Erichsen, Arthothelium ruanideum var. olivaceum (Erichsen) Erichsen, Arthothelium ruanideum var. ruanideum (Nyl.) Arnold, Dermatina ruanidea (Nyl.) Zahlbr.]
Blue Ridge, Reported as Arthonia ruana in Lendemer et al. (2013), source: Schmitt, C.K. & N.G. Slack. 1990. Host specificity of epiphytic lichens and bryophytes: a comparison of the Adirondack Mountains (New York) and the Southern Blue Ridge Mountains (North Carolina). The Bryologist 93(3): 257 - 274.; J. C. Lendemer 20183 [NY], J. C. Lendemer 34624 [NY], W. R. Buck 50105 [NY], James C. Lendemer 8089 [PH], more...
[Aspicilia caesiocinerea f. caesiocinerea (Nyl. ex Malbr.) Arnold, Aspicilia caesiocinerea f. hiitolensis Räsänen, Aspicilia caesiocinerea f. lignaria (H. Magn.) Räsänen, Aspicilia caesiocinerea f. polycarpa (H. Magn.) Szatala, Aspicilia caesiocinerea var. amphibola (Ach.) Szatala, Aspicilia caesiocinerea var. caesiocinerea (Nyl. ex Malbr.) Arnold, Aspicilia caesiocinerea var. isidiata (H. Magn.) Oxner, Aspicilia caesiocinerea var. laevigata (H. Magn.) Räsänen, Aspicilia caesiocinerea var. planior (J. Steiner) Szatala, Aspicilia caesiocinerea var. subdepressa (Nyl.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux, Circinaria caesiocinerea (Nyl. ex Malbr.) A. Nordin, Savić & Tibell, Lecanora caesiocinerea Nyl., Lecanora caesiocinerea f. caesiocinerea Nyl., Lecanora caesiocinerea f. hiltolensis (Räsänen) Zahlbr., Lecanora caesiocinerea f. obscurascens H. Magn., Lecanora caesiocinerea f. obscurata Nyl., Lecanora caesiocinerea f. pallidior H. Magn., Lecanora caesiocinerea f. peripterodes Nyl., Lecanora caesiocinerea f. plumbea H. Magn., Lecanora caesiocinerea f. polycarpa H. Magn., Lecanora caesiocinerea f. proluta Nyl., Lecanora caesiocinerea f. verrucosa H. Magn., Lecanora caesiocinerea var. amphibola (Ach.) H. Magn., Lecanora caesiocinerea var. caesiocinerea Nyl., Lecanora caesiocinerea var. eluta Nyl., Lecanora caesiocinerea var. isidiata H. Magn., Lecanora caesiocinerea var. laevigata H. Magn., Lecanora caesiocinerea var. planior J. Steiner, Lecanora gibbosa f. porinoidea (Flot.) Leight., Pachyospora caesiocinerea (Nyl.) M. Choisy, Zeora gibbosa var. porinoidea Flot.]
Blue Ridge, source: Lendemer, J.C., R.C. Harris and E.A. Tripp. 2013. The lichens and allied fungi of Great Smoky Mountains National Park: an annotated checklist with comprehensive keys. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden Volume 104: 1-152
[Gussonea cinerea (L.) Tornab., Lecanora cinerea (L.) Sommerf., Lecanora cinerea f. athallina Nyl., Lecanora cinerea f. cinerea (L.) Sommerf., Lecanora cinerea f. flexuosa (Schaer.) Zahlbr., Lecanora cinerea f. incrassata Vain., Lecanora cinerea f. lepidota (Leight.) Leight., Lecanora cinerea f. macra Nyl., Lecanora cinerea f. pruinosa Vain., Lecanora cinerea f. tigrina (Hoffm.) Zahlbr., Lecanora cinerea f. virens Wahlenb., Lecanora cinerea subsp. cinerea (L.) Sommerf., Lecanora cinerea var. atroalba Räsänen, Lecanora cinerea var. caesiogrisea Vain., Lecanora cinerea var. chiodectonoides (Anzi) Jatta, Lecanora cinerea var. cinerea (L.) Sommerf., Lecanora cinerea var. contorta (Hoffm.) Hepp, Lecanora cinerea var. insularis Vain. ex Räsänen, Lecanora cinerea var. lepidota Leight., Lecanora cinerea var. obscurata Fr., Lecanora cinerea var. pandeis T.P. Brisson, Lecanora cinerea var. pumila (Räsänen) Cretz., Lecanora cinerea var. sallensis (Räsänen) Zahlbr., Lecanora cinerea var. subcretacea Nyl., Lecanora cinerea var. sublutescens Nyl., Parmelia cinerea (L.) Hepp, Parmelia cinerea var. cinerea (L.) Hepp, Psora cinerea (L.) Hampe, Urceolaria cinerea (L.) Ach., Urceolaria cinerea f. cinerea (L.) Ach., Urceolaria cinerea f. depressa Rabenh., Urceolaria cinerea f. flexuosa Schaer., Urceolaria cinerea f. patellaris Schaer., Urceolaria cinerea f. solitaria Rabenh., Urceolaria cinerea var. alba Schaer., Urceolaria cinerea var. atrocinerea Schaer., Urceolaria cinerea var. cinerea (L.) Ach., Urceolaria cinerea var. notata Ach., Urceolaria cinerea var. vulgaris Schaer., Zeora cinerea (L.) Flot.]
Blue Ridge, source: Lendemer, J.C., R.C. Harris and E.A. Tripp. 2013. The lichens and allied fungi of Great Smoky Mountains National Park: an annotated checklist with comprehensive keys. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden Volume 104: 1-152
[Aspicilia lusca (Nyl.) B. de Lesd., Aspicilia sylvatica Arnold, Lecanora cinerea var. laevata (Ach.)Tuck., Lecanora laevata (Ach.) Nyl., Lecanora laevata f. laevata (Ach.) Nyl., Lecanora laevata f. obscurata H. Magn., Lecanora laevata f. pallidior H. Magn., Lecanora laevata f. sylvatica (Arnold) H. Magn., Lecanora laevata f. vitrea (Anzi) H. Magn., Lecanora laevata var. laevata (Ach.) Nyl., Lecanora laevata var. radians H. Magn., Lecanora lusca Nyl., Lecanora sylvatica (Arnold) Sandst., Sagedia laevata Ach., Urceolaria laevata (Ach.) Duby]
[Aspicilia cinerea var. myrinii (Fr.) Th. Fr., Aspicilia myrinii (Fr.) Stein, Aspicilia myrinii var. myrinii (Fr.) Stein, Aspicilia myrinii var. subadunans (Vain.) Oxner, Lecanora myrinii (Fr.) Nyl., Lecanora myrinii var. myrinii (Fr.) Nyl., Lecanora myrinii var. subadunans Vain., Parmelia myrinii Fr., Urceolaria myrinii (Fr.) Motyka]
Reported as Lecanora myrinii, source: Culberson, W. L. 1961. A disposition of the nomenclature of lichens in Curtis's North Carolina Botany of 1867. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 77(2): 265 - 276.
[Platygrapha quadrangula Stirt.]
Blue Ridge, source: Lendemer, J.C. & E.A. Tripp. 2008. Contributions to the lichen flora of North Carolina: a preliminary checklist of the lichens of Gorges State Park. The Bryologist 111(1): 57-67.
[Bacidiomyces Cif. & Tomas., Bacidiopsora Kalb, Byssopsora A. Massal., Lopacidia Kalb, Megalopsora Vain., Psorella (Müll. Arg.) Müll. Arg., Urophora Sommerf. ex Arnold]
[Bacidia bacillifera (Nyl.) Branth & Rostr., Bacidia bacillifera var. circumspecta Norrl. & Nyl., Bacidia circumspecta f. circumspecta (Norrl. & Nyl.) Malme, Bacidia quercicola (Nyl.) Vain., Bacidia quercicola f. cyanocalypta Vain., Bacidia quercicola f. quercicola (Nyl.) Vain., Lecidea circumspecta (Vain.) Hedl., Lecidea muscorum var. quercicola Nyl., Scutula circumspecta (Vain.) Kistenich, Timdal, Bendiksby & S.Ekman]
mixed mesic forest; partly shady; substrate: Carya ovata trunk; Perlmutter, Gary B. 419 [NCU], Perlmutter, Gary B. 319 [NCU]
source: Ekman, S 1996: The corticolous and lignicolous species of Bacidia and Bacidina in North America. - Opera Botanica 127: 1-148.
[Bacidia pammellii (Fink) Zahlbr., Bilimbia granosa (Tuck.) Fink, Bilimbia pammellii Fink ex J. Hedrick, Lecidea granosa Tuck.]
Blue Ridge, source: Lendemer, J.C. & E.A. Tripp. 2008. Contributions to the lichen flora of North Carolina: a preliminary checklist of the lichens of Gorges State Park. The Bryologist 111(1): 57-67.
[Patellaria heterochroa Müll.Arg.]
Piedmont, Coastal Plain, source: Lendemer, J.C. & R. Yahr. 2004. A checklist of the lichens collected during the Tuckerman Workshop #12, Outer Banks, North Carolina, USA. Evansia 21(3): 118 - 136.; Perlmutter, Gary B. 319 [NCU], Perlmutter, Gary B. 4335 [NCU], James C. Lendemer 8316 [PH]
Holotype in BG, source: Printzen, C. & T. Tønsberg. 2007. Bacidia lobarica (Bacidiaceae, Lecanorales) sp. nov., a sorediate lichen from southeastern USA. The Bryologist 110(3): 487-489.; T. Tønsberg 18199 [BG]
[Bacidia acerina (Ach.) Arnold, Bacidia acerina var. acerina (Ach.) Arnold, Bacidia fuscorubella (Hoffm.) Arn., Bacidia fuscorubella f. fuscorubella (Hoffm.) Bausch, Bacidia fuscorubella f. polychroa Th. Fr., Bacidia luteola var. acerina Ach., Bacidia polysita (Stirt.) A.L. Sm., Biatora fuscorubella (Hoffm.) Tuck., Biatora polychroa Th. Fr., Lecidea fuscorubella (Hoffm.) Röhl., Lecidea polysita Stirt., Lecidea spadicea Ach., Secoliga acerina (Ach.) Stizenb., Secoliga fuscorubella (Hoffm.) Stizenb., Toninia polysita (Stirt.) H. Olivier, Verrucaria fuscorubella Hoffm.]
mixed mesic forest; partly shady; substrate: Carya ovata trunk; Perlmutter, Gary B. 418 [NCU]
[Bacidia luteola (Schrad.) Mudd, Bacidia luteola f. areolata Oxner, Bacidia luteola f. conspondens Zahlbr., Bacidia luteola f. luteola (Ach.) Mudd, Bacidia luteola f. porriginosa (Turner) Oxner, Bacidia luteola var. luteola (Ach.) Mudd, Bacidia luteola var. porriginosa (Turner) A.L. Sm., Bacidia rubella var. porriginosa (Turner) H. Olivier, Bacidiomyces rubellae Cif. & Tomas., Biatora luteola (Schrad.) Fr., Biatora luteola f. luteola (Schrad.) Fr., Biatora luteola var. luteola (Schrad.) Fr., Biatora luteola var. schweinitzii Tuck., Biatora rubella (Hoffm.) Rabenh., Lecidea granulosa var. porriginosa (Turner) Clemente, Lecidea luteola (Schrad.) Ach., Lecidea luteola var. acerina Ach., Lecidea luteola var. americana Fée, Lecidea luteola var. luteola (Schrad.) Ach., Lecidea luteola var. rubella Ach., Lichen luteolus Schrad., Lichen porriginosus Turner, Lichen rubellus (Hoffm.) Ach., Ochrolechia luteola (Schrad.) Overeem, Patellaria luteola (Schrad.) Müll. Arg., Patellaria rubella (Hoffm.) DC., Secoliga rubella (Hoffm.) Stizenb., Verrucaria rubella Hoffm.]
source: DePriest, P., 2001: Lichen inventory for proposed Big Cove Land Exchange, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, North Carolina. SI DSG Code 686026.
[Lichingoldia D.Hawksw. & Poelt nom. rej., Woessia D. Hawksw. & Poelt nom. rejic.]
[Bacidia arnoldiana Körb., Bacidia arnoldiana f. corticola Arnold, Bacidia latebricola Wheldon & Travis, Lecidea arnoldiana (Körb.) Harm., Patellaria arnoldiana (Körb.) Müll. Arg.]
source: Ekman, S 1996: The corticolous and lignicolous species of Bacidia and Bacidina in North America. - Opera Botanica 127: 1-148.
[Bacidia albescens (Kremp.) Zwackh, Bacidia assulata (Körb.) Vězda, Bacidia effusa f. effusa (Sm.) Trevis., Bacidia effusa var. effusa (Sm.) Trevis., Bacidia effusa var. intermedia Zahlbr., Bacidia intermedia Hampe ex A. Massal., Bacidia rubella var. assulata Körb.]
Blue Ridge, source: unpublished checklist provided by R.C. Harris (NY).
[Bacidia delicata (Larbal. ex Leight.) Coppins, Lecidea effusa var. delicata Larbal. ex Leight., Woessia delicata (Larbal. ex Leight.) Sérus. & Diederich]
[Bacidia egenula (Nyl.) Arnold, Bacidia egenula var. egenula (Nyl.) Arnold, Bacidia epiphylla Wheldon & Travis, Lecidea egenula Nyl.]
maritime forest; partly shady; Substrate: brick; Newman, Randy s.n. [NCU]
[Bacidia arnoldiana var. inundata (Fr.) Körb., Bacidia inundata (Fr.) Körb., Bacidia inundata f. inundata (Fr.) Körb., Bacidia inundata subsp. allecta (Nyl.) A.L. Sm., Bacidia inundata subsp. inundata (Fr.) Körb., Bacidia inundata var. inundata (Fr.) Körb., Biatora inundata Fr., Lecidea effusa var. inundata (Nyl.) Leight., Lecidea inundata var. allecta Nyl., Lichingoldia gyalectiformis D.Hawksw. & Poelt, Secoliga inundata (Fr.) Stizenb.]
[Bactrospora macrospora R.C. Harris, Gyalecta lamprospora Nyl., Lecidea lamprospora (Nyl.) Hue, Melampylidium macrosporum (R.C. Harris) Henssen]
maritime forest; partly shady; Substrate: laurel trunk; Perlmutter, Gary B. 725 [NCU], Perlmutter, Gary B. 735 [NCU]
[Bactrospora carolinensis (Ellis & Everh.) R.C. Harris]
source: Lendemer, J.C. & R. Yahr. 2004. A checklist of the lichens collected during the Tuckerman Workshop #12, Outer Banks, North Carolina, USA. Evansia 21(3): 118 - 136.; J.C. Lendemer 1019 [ASU], James C. Lendemer 1019 [PH]
[Buellia curtisii (Tuck.) Imshaug, Gyrostomum curtisii Tuck.]
Mixed Mesic Hardwood Forest with alluvial elements over floodplain; shaded; Substrate: fallen hardwood branch; Perlmutter, Gary B. 4086 [NCU], Perlmutter, Gary B. 1727 [NCU], Perlmutter, Gary B. 4224 [NCU], Perlmutter, Gary B. 4064 [NCU], more...
[Baeomyces byssoides (L.) Gärtner, Mey. & Schrebius, Baeomyces rufus f. subsquamulosus (Nyl.) Frey, Baeomyces rufus var. prostii Harm., Baeomyces rufus var. subsquamulosus Nyl., Lichen rufus Huds.]
Blue Ridge, source: Dey, J.P. 1978. Fruticose and foliose lichens of the high-mountain areas of the southern Appalachians. The Bryologist 81(1): 1 - 93.; T.H. Nash III 18714 [ASU], P.O. Schallert 1934-04-01 [ASU]
[Protobagliettoa baldensis (A. Massal.) Servít ex J. Nowak & Tobol., Verrucaria baldensis A. Massal.]
source: Lendemer, J.C. & R. Yahr. 2004. A checklist of the lichens collected during the Tuckerman Workshop #12, Outer Banks, North Carolina, USA. Evansia 21(3): 118 - 136.
[Amphoridium calcisedum (DC.) Servít, Amphoridium calcisedum f. calcisedum (DC.) Servít, Amphoridium calcisedum f. coronatum (Servít) Servít, Amphoridium calcisedum f. insculptoides (J. Steiner) Grummann, Amphoridium calcisedum f. interruptum (Anzi) Servít, Amphoridium calcisedum f. tinctum (J. Lahm ex Zschacke) Grummann, Amphoridium calcivorum (A. Massal.) Servít, Verrucaria calciseda DC., Verrucaria calciseda f. calcivora A. Massal.]
Coastal Plain, source: Lendemer, J.C. & R. Yahr. 2004. A checklist of the lichens collected during the Tuckerman Workshop #12, Outer Banks, North Carolina, USA. Evansia 21(3): 118 - 136.
Blue Ridge, source: Printzen, C, Tonsberg, T. 2004. New and interesting Biatora-species, mainly from North America. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 8(1): 343-357.
[Lecidea helvola (Körb. ex Hellb.) Th. Fr., Lecidea helvola f. helvola (Körb. ex Hellb.) Th. Fr., Lecidea helvola subsp. helvola (Körb. ex Hellb.) Th. Fr., Lecidea helvola var. helvola (Körb. ex Hellb.) Th. Fr.]
Blue Ridge, source: Degelius,G N 1941: Contributions to the Lichen flora of North America II. The lichen flora of the Great Smoky Mountains. - Arkiv för BotanikArk. Bot. 30A, Nr. 3: 1-80.
[Lecidea helvola var. longispora Degel.]
Blue Ridge, source: Lendemer, J.C. & E.A. Tripp. 2008. Contributions to the lichen flora of North Carolina: a preliminary checklist of the lichens of Gorges State Park. The Bryologist 111(1): 57-67.
Blue Ridge, source: Lendemer, J.C. 2010. Contributions to the lichen flora of Pennsylvania – further new and interesting reports of lichens and lichenicolous fungi. Evansia 27(2): 47-66.
source: Printzen, C. and T. Tonsberg. 2004. New and interesting Biatora-species, mainly from North America. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 8(1): 343-357.
[Biatora helvola subsp. minor (Nyl.) Räsänen, Biatorina vernalis (L.) Kernst., Bilimbia vernalis (L.) Trevis., Lecidea luteola var. vernalis (L.) Overeem, Lecidea vernalis (L.) Ach., Lecidea vernalis f. incana Th. Fr., Lecidea vernalis f. minor Nyl., Lecidea vernalis f. pachyloma (Hazsl.) Zahlbr., Lecidea vernalis f. subsylvana Vain., Lecidea vernalis f. vernalis (L.) Ach., Lecidea vernalis subsp. helvola (Körb. ex Hellb.) Th. Fr., Lecidea vernalis subsp. minor (Nyl.) Nyl. ex Norrl., Lecidea vernalis subsp. minuta (Schaer.) Nyl., Lecidea vernalis subsp. tenebricosa Nyl., Lecidea vernalis subsp. vernalis (L.) Ach., Lecidea vernalis var. minor Nyl., Lecidea vernalis var. vernalis (L.) Ach., Lichen vernalis L., Parmelia vernalis (L.) Chevall., Patellaria vernalis (L.) Spreng., Pyrrhospora vernalis (L.) M. Choisy, Secoliga vernalis (L.) Norman, Verrucaria vernalis (L.) Baumg.]
Blue Ridge, source: Lendemer, J.C. 2007. Contributions to the lichen flora of North Carolina: new and interesting records of lichens and lichenicolous fungi. Evansia 24(4): 98-102.
Blue Ridge, source: Lendemer, J.C., R.C. Harris and E.A. Tripp. 2013. The lichens and allied fungi of Great Smoky Mountains National Park: an annotated checklist with comprehensive keys. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden Volume 104: 1-152.
[Bacidia hyphophila (Ach.) Zahlbr., Bacidia hypnophila (Ach.) Zahlbr., Bacidia hypnophila subsp. accedens (Arnold) Th. Fr., Bacidia hypnophila subsp. hypnophila (Ach.) Zahlbr., Bacidia lubens (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Bacidia metamorphea (Nyl.) Lettau, Bacidia sabuletorum (Schreber) Lettau, Bacidia sabuletorum f. dolosa (Duby) Zahlbr., Bacidia sabuletorum f. sabuletorum (Schreb.) Lettau, Bacidia sabuletorum f. subsphaeroides (Nyl.) H. Magn., Bacidia sabuletorum f. viridis (Wheldon & A. Wilson) Zahlbr., Bacidia sabuletorum var. accedens (Arnold) Oxner, Bacidia sabuletorum var. angustispora (Walt. Watson) Zahlbr., Bacidia sabuletorum var. dolosa (Duby) V. Wirth, Bacidia sabuletorum var. sabuletorum (Schreb.) Lettau, Bacidia sabuletorum var. septenaria (A.L. Sm.) Zahlbr., Baeomyces sabuletorum (Schreb.) Röhl., Biatora hypnophila (Turner ex Ach.) Lönnr., Biatora hypnophila var. hypnophila (Turner ex Ach.) Lönnr., Bilimbia hypnophila (Turner ex Ach.) Th. Fr., Bilimbia hypnophila f. dolosa (Duby) Szatala, Bilimbia hypnophila f. hypnophila (Turner ex Ach.) Zahlbr., Bilimbia hypnophila f. killiasii (Hepp) Szatala, Bilimbia hypnophila var. cinnamomea Räsänen, Bilimbia hypnophila var. hypnophila (Turner ex Ach.) Zahlbr., Bilimbia hypnophila var. septenaria (A.L. Sm.) Szatala, Bilimbia lubens (Nyl.) H. Olivier, Bilimbia metamorphea (Nyl.) H. Olivier, Bilimbia sabuletorum f. viridis Wheldon & A. Wilson, Bilimbia sabuletorum subsp. lubens (Nyl.) A.L. Sm., Bilimbia sabuletorum var. accedens (Arnold) Arnold, Bilimbia sabuletorum var. angustispora Walt. Watson, Bilimbia sabuletorum var. septenaria A.L. Sm., Bilimbia sabuletorum var. viridis (Wheldon & A. Wilson) Walt. Watson, Bilimbia sphaeroides f. dolosa, Lecidea hypnophila Turner ex Ach., Lecidea lubens Nyl., Lecidea metamorphea Nyl., Lecidea metamorphea subsp. metamorphea Nyl., Lecidea metamorphea subsp. septenaria Nyl., Lecidea sabuletorum (Schreb.) Ach., Lecidea sabuletorum f. epimelas Stizenb., Lecidea sabuletorum f. killiasii (Hepp) Stizenb., Lecidea sabuletorum f. sabuletorum (Schreb.) Ach., Lecidea sabuletorum f. subsphaeroides Nyl., Lecidea sabuletorum var. aequata Flörke, Lecidea sabuletorum var. coniops (Wahlenb.) Fr., Lecidea sabuletorum var. enteroleuca Fr., Lecidea sabuletorum var. muscorum Th. Fr., Lecidea sabuletorum var. sabuletorum (Schreb.) Ach., Lecidea subretrusa Stirt., Lichen sabuletorum Schreb., Mycobilimbia accedens (Arnold) V. Wirth & Hafellner ex Hafellner, Mycobilimbia sabuletorum (Schreber) Hafellner, Myxobilimbia accedens (Arnold) Hafellner, Myxobilimbia sabuletorum (Schreb.), Patellaria sabuletorum (Schreb.) Spreng., Tubercularia sabuletorum (Schreb.) Baumg., Weitenwebera sabuletorum (Schreb.) Poetsch]
Blue Ridge, source: Lendemer, J.C., R.C. Harris and E.A. Tripp. 2013. The lichens and allied fungi of Great Smoky Mountains National Park: an annotated checklist with comprehensive keys. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden Volume 104: 1-152.
[Crocynia grevilleana B. de Lesd., Crocynia lesdainii Hue, Lepraria lesdainii (Hue) R.C. Harris]
Blue Ridge, source: Lendemer, J.C. 2008. New and interesting records of lichens and lichenicolous fungi from New Jersey and Pennsylvania. Evansia 25(4): 102-109.
[Biatora bauschiana Körb., Biatora callicarpa (Larbal. ex Leight.) Walt. Watson, Biatora dilutiuscula (Nyl.) G. Merr., Biatora infidula (Nyl.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Biatora rusticella (Nyl.) Walt. Watson, Biatora semipallens (Nyl.) Walt. Watson, Lecidea bauschiana (Körb.) Lettau, Lecidea bauschiana f. bauschiana (Körb.) Lettau, Lecidea bauschiana f. dilutiuscula (Nyl.) Lettau, Lecidea callicarpa Larbal. ex Leight., Lecidea dilutiuscula Nyl., Lecidea infidula Nyl., Lecidea rusticella Nyl., Lecidea semipallens Nyl., Lecidea semipallens var. obscurior K.G.W. Lång ex Hav., Lecidea semipallens var. semipallens Nyl., Lecidea sylvicola var. infidula (Nyl.) Leight., Micarea bauschiana (Körb.) V. Wirth & Vězda, Micarea semipallens (Nyl.) Walt. Watson]
[Biatora leucoxantha (Spreng.) Bél., Heterothecium leucoxanthum (Spreng.) A. Massal., Lecidea leucoxantha Spreng., Lopadium leucoxanthum (Spreng.) Zahlbr., Lopadium leucoxanthum f. leucoxanthum (Spreng.) Zahlbr., Lopadium leucoxanthum f. sorediatum Zahlbr., Lopadium leucoxanthum var. albidius Zahlbr., Lopadium leucoxanthum var. leucoxanthum (Spreng.) Zahlbr., Lopadium leucoxanthum var. ussuriense Oxner, Miltidea leucoxantha (Spreng.) Stirt., Patellaria leucoxantha (Spreng.) Spreng., Sporopodium leucoxanthum (Spreng.) Vain., Sporopodium leucoxanthum var. leucoxanthum (Spreng.) Vain., Sporopodium leucoxanthum var. microcarpa Räsänen, Sporopodium leucoxanthum var. microcarpum Räsänen, Xanthocarpia leucoxantha (Spreng.) C. Müll.]
maritime forest; partly shady; substrate: Quercus laurifolia trunk; Perlmutter, Gary B. 662 [NCU], Culberson, William, L. 7941 [DUKE]
[Biatora ahlesii Hepp, Biatora rusticula (Nyl.) Walt. Watson, Biatora valentior (Nyl.) Walt. Watson, Lecidea ahlesii (Hepp) Nyl., Lecidea ahlesii var. ahlesii (Hepp) Nyl., Lecidea delincta Nyl., Lecidea rusticula Nyl., Lecidea valentior Nyl., Lecidea virginiensis Calk. & Nyl., Mycobilimbia ahlesii (Körb.) R. Sant.]
source: Lendemer, J.C., R.C. Harris and E.A. Tripp. 2013. The lichens and allied fungi of Great Smoky Mountains National Park: an annotated checklist with comprehensive keys. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden Volume 104: 1-152.
[Biatora atrofusca Flot. ex Hepp, Biatora atrofusca var. atrofusca Flörke ex Hepp, Biatora atrofusca var. templetonii (Taylor) Walt. Watson, Biatora fusca (Borrer) Th. Fr., Biatora fusca var. atrofusca (Flot.) Oxner, Biatora fusca var. fusca Nägeli, Biatora fusca var. templetonii (Taylor) Oxner, Biatorina atrofusca Lönnr., Bilimbia templetonii (Taylor) Mudd, Lecidea atrofusca (Flot. ex Hepp) Mudd, Lecidea atrofusca f. atrofusca (Flot. ex Hepp) Mudd, Lecidea atrofusca f. atrorufidula (Vain.) Zahlbr., Lecidea atrofusca f. caerulescens (Vain.) Zahlbr., Lecidea atrofusca f. minuescens Nyl., Lecidea atrofusca f. persistens (Nyl.) H. Magn., Lecidea atrofusca f. tristior (Nyl.) H. Magn., Lecidea atrofusca var. atrofusca (Flot. ex Hepp) Mudd, Lecidea atrofusca var. persistens (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Lecidea atrofusca var. roburicola Tav., Lecidea atrofusca var. templetonii (Taylor) Zahlbr., Lecidea fusca (Schaer.) Th. Fr., Lecidea fusca f. atrorufidula Vain., Lecidea fusca f. caerulescens (Vain.) Vain., Lecidea fusca f. fusca (Schaer.) Th. Fr., Lecidea fusca f. pachyloma (Hazsl.) Szatala, Lecidea fusca var. atrofusca (Lönnr.) Th. Fr., Lecidea fusca var. coilocarpa Ach., Lecidea fusca var. fusca (Schaer.) Th. Fr., Lecidea fusca var. templetonii (Taylor) Vain., Lecidea hypnorum Lib., Lecidea sanguineoatra var. templetonii (Taylor) Vain., Lecidea sphaeroides var. fusca Schaer., Lecidea templetonii Taylor, Mycobilimbia hypnorum (Lib.) Kalb & Hafellner]
[Alectoria bicolor (Ehrh.) Nyl., Alectoria bicolor f. berengeriana Arnold, Alectoria bicolor f. bicolor (Ehrh.) Nyl., Alectoria bicolor f. major Hav., Alectoria bicolor f. melaneira (Ach.) Nyl., Alectoria bicolor f. minor Hav., Alectoria bicolor f. pallidior Gyeln., Alectoria bicolor f. subolivacea (Gyeln. & Fóriss) Motyka, Alectoria bicolor f. tenuissima Gyeln., Alectoria bicolor subsp. berengeriana (Arnold) Suza, Alectoria bicolor subsp. bicolor (Ehrh.) Nyl., Alectoria bicolor var. berengeriana A. Massal. ex Stizenb., Alectoria bicolor var. bicolor (Ehrh.) Nyl., Alectoria bicolor var. intricata (Hue) Gyeln., Alectoria bicolor var. nigerrima (Hue) Gyeln., Alectoria bicolor var. subbicolor Motyka, Alectoria jubata var. bicolor (Ehrh.) Linds., Bryopogon bicolor (Ehrh.) Stein, Bryopogon bicolor f. bicolor (Ehrh.) Stein, Bryopogon bicolor f. caespitosus (Savicz) Gyeln., Bryopogon bicolor f. melaneima (Ach.) Gyeln., Bryopogon bicolor f. melaneirus (Ach.) Gyeln., Bryopogon bicolor f. pallidior (Gyeln.) Gyeln., Bryopogon bicolor f. patens (Savicz) Gyeln., Bryopogon bicolor var. bicolor (Ehrh.) Stein, Bryopogon bicolor var. intricatus (Hue) Gyeln., Bryopogon bicolor var. nigerrimus (Hue) Gyeln., Bryopogon jubatus var. bicolor (Ehrh.) Rabenh., Cornicularia bicolor (Ehrh.) Ach., Cornicularia bicolor var. bicolor (Ehrh.) Ach., Cornicularia bicolor var. melaneira Ach., Evernia bicolor (Ehrh.) Fr., Lichen bicolor Ehrh., Parmelia bicolor (Ehrh.) Spreng., Parmelia jubata * bicolor, Usnea bicolor (Ehrh.) Hoffm., Usnea dasopoga f. dasypogoides (Nyl.) Hue, Usnea dasopoga subsp. bicolor Motyka, Usnea dasopoga var. bicolor (Motyka) Grummann, Usnea dasypogoides Nyl., Usnea dasypogoides f. dasypogoides Nyl., Usnea filipendula var. bicolor (Motyka) N.S. Golubk.]
Blue Ridge, source: McCune, B., J. Dey, J. Peck, K. Heiman & S. Will-Wolf. 1997. Regional gradients in lichen communities of the southeast United States. The Bryologist 100(2): 145 - 458.
[Alectoria chalybeiformis f. nidulifera (Norrl.) G. Merr., Alectoria nidulifera Norrl., Alectoria nidulifera f. nidulifera Norrl., Alectoria nidulifera f. simplicior Vain., Alectoria nidulifera var. nidulifera Norrl., Alectoria simplicior var. alba Gyeln., Bryopogon nidulifer (Norrl.) Elenkin, Bryopogon nidulifer f. albus (Gyeln.) Gyeln., Bryopogon nidulifer f. compactus Gyeln., Bryopogon nidulifer f. isidialus Gyeln., Bryopogon nidulifer f. nidulifer (Norrl.) Elenkin, Cetraria furcellata Fr., Cornicularia fibrillosa (Ach.) Halsey, Cornicularia pubescens var. fibrillosa Ach.]
Blue Ridge, source: Lendemer, J.C. & E.A. Tripp. 2008. Contributions to the lichen flora of North Carolina: a preliminary checklist of the lichens of Gorges State Park. The Bryologist 111(1): 57-67.
[Alectoria altaica (Gyeln.) Räsänen, Alectoria implexa var. nadvornikiana (Gyeln.) Zahlbr., Alectoria nadvornikiana Gyeln., Alectoria nadvornikiana var. eciliata Motyka, Alectoria nadvornikiana var. extensa Motyka, Alectoria nadvornikiana var. nadvornikiana Gyeln., Alectoria nadvornikiana var. spinulosa (Räsänen) Motyka, Bryopogon implexus var. nadvornikianus (Gyeln.) Gyeln., Bryopogon nadvornikianus (Gyeln.) Gyeln.]
Blue Ridge, Reported as Alectoria nadvornikiana, source: Dey, J.P. 1978. Fruticose and foliose lichens of the high-mountain areas of the southern Appalachians. The Bryologist 81(1): 1 - 93.
[Alectoria tenuis Å.E. Dahl, Bryopogon tenuis (Å.E. Dahl) Bystrek]
Blue Ridge, Reported as Alectoria tenuis, source: Dey, J.P. 1978. Fruticose and foliose lichens of the high-mountain areas of the southern Appalachians. The Bryologist 81(1): 1 - 93.
[Alectoria trichodes (Michx.) D. Hawksw., Setaria trichodes Michx.]
mesic mixed hardwood forest; shady; Substrate: Acer rubrum branch with fallen Quercus stellata leaf; Perlmutter, Gary B. 643 [NCU]
[Alectoria ambigua Motyka, Alectoria americana Motyka, Alectoria americana subsp. americana, Alectoria americana var. americana, Alectoria sepiacea Motyka, Bryoria americana (Motyka) Holien]
Blue Ridge, Reported as Alectoria americana, source: Perry, J.D. & B.J. Moore. 1969. Preliminary check list of foliose and fruticose lichens in Buncombe County, North Carolina. Castanea 34: 146 - 157.
[Alectoria canadensis Motyka, Alectoria delicata Motyka]
[Anapyrenium Müll. Arg., Aplotomma A. Massal. ex Beltr., Buelliopsis A. Schneider, Dirinastromyces Cif. & Tomas., Dirinastrum Müll. Arg., Hafellia Kalb, H. Mayrhofer & Scheid., Lepropinacia Vent., Mattickiomyces Cif. & Tomas., Melanaspicilia Vain., Samboa Tomas. & Cif., Samboamyces Cif. & Tomas.]
[Chrismofulvea dialyta (Nyl.) Marbach, Lecidea dialyta Nyl.]
Blue Ridge, source: Schmitt, C.K. & N.G. Slack. 1990. Host specificity of epiphytic lichens and bryophytes: a comparison of the Adirondack Mountains (New York) and the Southern Blue Ridge Mountains (North Carolina). The Bryologist 93(3): 257 - 274.; Jason Hollinger 5529 [ASU]
[Gassicurtia elizae (Tuck.) Marbach, Lecidea elizae Tuck.]
Blue Ridge, Coastal Plain, source: Lendemer, J.C. & E.A. Tripp. 2008. Contributions to the lichen flora of North Carolina: a preliminary checklist of the lichens of Gorges State Park. The Bryologist 111(1): 57-67.; James C. Lendemer 4808 [PH], James C. Lendemer 3710 [PH]
[Baculifera imshaugiana (R.C. Harris) Marbach]
source: Lendemer, J.C. & R. Yahr. 2004. A checklist of the lichens collected during the Tuckerman Workshop #12, Outer Banks, North Carolina, USA. Evansia 21(3): 118 - 136.; J. C. Lendemer 34272 [NY], J. C. Lendemer 34266 [NY], Perlmutter, Gary B. 4320 [NCU]
[Lecidea japonica Tuck., Sculptolumina japonica (Tuck.) Marbach]
Blue Ridge, source: Lendemer, J.C. & E.A. Tripp. 2008. Contributions to the lichen flora of North Carolina: a preliminary checklist of the lichens of Gorges State Park. The Bryologist 111(1): 57-67.; James C. Lendemer 4613 [PH]
[Buellia australica Räsänen, Buellia glaziouana (Kremp.) Müll. Arg., Buellia glaziouana f. albinea Räsänen, Buellia glaziouana f. glaziouana (Kremp.) Müll. Arg., Buellia glaziouana var. glaziouana (Kremp.) Müll. Arg., Buellia glaziouana var. poliocheila (Vain.) Imshaug, Buellia glaziouana var. sensitiva (Zahlbr.) Imshaug, Buellia thomae (Tuck.) Imshaug comb. inval., Rinodina mamillana Tuck., Rinodina thomae Tuck.]
[Buellia amblyogona Müll. Arg., Buellia exilis (Kremp.) Müll. Arg., Buellia italica A. Massal., Buellia italica var. debanensis Bagl., Buellia italica var. italica A. Massal., Buellia italica var. recobarina A. Massal., Buellia italica var. tumida A. Massal., Buellia krempelhuberi Zahlbr., Buellia lactea (A. Massal.) Körb., Buellia lactea var. cinerea Zahlbr., Buellia lactea var. lactea (A. Massal.) Körb., Buellia liguriensis B. de Lesd., Buellia olivaceofusca (Anzi) Zahlbr., Buellia recobarina (A. Massal.) Müll. Arg., Buellia spuria var. amblyogona (Müll. Arg.) Elix, Buellia spuria var. insularis (A. Massal.) Jatta, Buellia spuria var. spuria (Schaer.) Anzi, Catolechia lactea (Schaer.) A. Massal., Catolechia recobarina A. Massal., Lecidea contigua var. lactea Schaer., Lecidea spuria Schaer., Lecidea spuria var. spuria Schaer.]
[Buelliopsis vernicoma (Tuck.) A. Schneid., Diplotomma vernicomum (Tuck.) Szatala, Gassicurtia vernicoma (Tuck.) Marbach, Lecidea vernicoma Leight.]
Blue Ridge, source: Lendemer, J.C. & E.A. Tripp. 2008. Contributions to the lichen flora of North Carolina: a preliminary checklist of the lichens of Gorges State Park. The Bryologist 111(1): 57-67.; James C. Lendemer 4834 [PH], James C. Lendemer 6900 [PH]
[Ciposia wheeleri (R.C. Harris) Marbach]
source: Lendemer, J.C. & R. Yahr. 2004. A checklist of the lichens collected during the Tuckerman Workshop #12, Outer Banks, North Carolina, USA. Evansia 21(3): 118 - 136.; Jason Hollinger 5640 [ASU], James C. Lendemer 1321 [PH]
[Parmelia confoederata W.L. Culb.]
Coastal Plain, Holotype as Parmelia confoederata (DUKE) from Brunswick County, source: Culberson, W.L. 1961. The Parmelia quercina group in North America. Amer. J. Botany 48(2): 168-174.
[Parmelia goebelii Zenker]
maritime forest; shady; Substrate: Persea borbonia trunk; Perlmutter, Gary B. 665 [NCU], Martyn J. Dibben 21408 [MIL]
[Parmelia isidiza Nyl., Parmelia isidiza var. isidiza Nyl.]
[Parmelia hookeri (Borrer) Spreng., Parmelia laevigatula Nyl.]
[Parmelia marginalis Lynge, Parmelia marginalis var. marginalis Lynge, Parmelia njalensis C.W. Dodge, Parmelia scortella Nyl.]
source: Mycological Progress 6: 61-80 (2007)
[Bacidia leucoblephara (Nyl.) Arnold ex P. James, Bacidia leucoblepharia var. leucoblepharia (Nyl.) Wheldon & A. Wilson, Bilimbia leucoblephara (Nyl.) Arnold, Bilimbia leucoblephara var. leucoblephara (Nyl.) Arnold, Lecidea leucoblephara Nyl., Patellaria leucoblephara (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Patellaria leucoblephara var. fuscopallida Müll.Arg., Patellaria leucoblephara var. leucoblephara (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Pilocarpon leucoblepharum (Nyl.) Vain., Pilocarpon leucoblepharum f. leucoblepharum (Nyl.) Vain., Pilocarpon leucoblepharum f. obscuratum Zahlbr., Pilocarpon leucoblepharum var. chloroticum Samp., Pilocarpon leucoblepharum var. leucoblepharum (Nyl.) Vain., Pilocarpon leucoblepharum var. poichilum Vain.]
Blue Ridge, Piedmont, Coastal Plain; Perlmutter, Gary B. 2269 [NCU]
[Bacidia meadii (Tuck.) Zahlbr., Biatora meadii Tuck., Bilimbia meadii (Tuck.) Fink, Byssoloma pubescens Vězda ex R.C. Harris]
source: Lendemer, J.C. & R. Yahr. 2004. A checklist of the lichens collected during the Tuckerman Workshop #12, Outer Banks, North Carolina, USA. Evansia 21(3): 118 - 136.
[Bacidia leucoblepharia var. rupicola Wheldon & A. Wilson, Bacidia rotuliformis (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Bilimbia leucoblephara var. rupicola Wheldon & A. Wilson, Byssoloma rotulifomre (Müll.Arg.) R. Sant., Byssoloma rotuliforme (Müll.Arg.) R. Sant., Chiodecton subdiscordans Nyl., Patellaria rotuliformis Müll.Arg.]
Piedmont, Coastal Plain; Perlmutter, Gary B. 810 [NCU]
[Calicium curtum Turner & Borrer ex Sm., Calicium curtum subsp. curtum Turner & Borrer ex Sm., Calicium curtum subsp. subcurtum Vain., Calicium curtum var. albosuffusa Vain., Calicium curtum var. albosuffusum Vain., Calicium curtum var. curtum Turner & Borrer ex Sm., Calicium curtum var. denigratum Vain., Calicium curtum var. denudatum Vain., Calicium curtum var. minus F. Wilson, Calicium curtum var. pumilum Kremp., Calicium curtum var. viridescens Vain., Calicium quercinum subsp. curtum (Turner & Borrer ex Sm.) Nyl., Phacotrum curtum (Turner & Borrer ex Sm.) Gray]
source: Lendemer, J.C. & R. Yahr. 2004. A checklist of the lichens collected during the Tuckerman Workshop #12, Outer Banks, North Carolina, USA. Evansia 21(3): 118 - 136.; W. R. Buck 43769 [NY], Don Flenniken 2003-03-19 [OS]
[Calicium abietinum f. glaucellum (Ach.) Erichsen, Calicium lenticulare f. chlorodes (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Calicium lenticulare var. chlorodes (Nyl.) Erichsen, Calicium quercinum f. chlorodes Nyl.]
Blue Ridge, source: unpublished checklist provided by R.C. Harris (NY).; J. C. Lendemer... 10843 [NY], James C. Lendemer 7008 [PH]
source: Lendemer, J.C. & R. Yahr. 2004. A checklist of the lichens collected during the Tuckerman Workshop #12, Outer Banks, North Carolina, USA. Evansia 21(3): 118 - 136.; James C. Lendemer 1838 [PH], James C. Lendemer 1023 [PH]
[Calicium amylocaule Lettau, Calicium lenticulare var. sphaerocephalum (Hoffm.) Zahlbr., Calicium subquercinum Asahina, Calicium subquercinum f. dispersum Asahina, Calicium subquercinum f. subquercinum Asahina, Calicium subquercinum subsp. nanum G. Pant & D.D. Awasthi, Calicium subquercinum subsp. subquercinum Asahina]
[Calicium claviculare var. trachelinum Ach., Calicium lichenoides (L.) Schumach., Calicium salicinum f. xylonella (Ach.) Nádv., Calicium salicinum var. xylonellum (Ach.) Trevis., Calicium sphaerocephalum (L.) Ach., Calicium sphaerocephalum f. epiphloeum (Ach.) Erichsen, Calicium sphaerocephalum f. tenuistipitatum Roms, Calicium sphaerocephalum f. trachelinum (Ach.) Erichsen, Calicium sphaerocephalum var. araucariarum Zahlbr., Calicium sphaerocephalum var. arenarium (Nádv.) Zahlbr., Calicium sphaerocephalum var. cinereofuscescens (Vain.) Zahlbr., Calicium sphaerocephalum var. crustosum Turner & Borrer, Calicium sphaerocephalum var. elattosporum (F. Wilson) Zahlbr., Calicium sphaerocephalum var. epiphloeum Ach., Calicium sphaerocephalum var. gyrocarpum (Nádv.) Oxner, Calicium sphaerocephalum var. meiocarpum (F. Wilson) Zahlbr., Calicium sphaerocephalum var. proliferum Szatala & Timk, Calicium sphaerocephalum var. rufescens (Vain.) Zahlbr., Calicium sphaerocephalum var. trachelinum (Ach.) Branth & Rostr., Calicium sphaerocephalum var. xylonellum (Ach.) Wahlenb., Calicium trachelinum Ach., Calicium trachelinum f. hemiphaeum Nyl. ex Cromb., Calicium trachelinum f. trachelinum Ach., Calicium trachelinum var. araucariarum Zahlbr., Calicium trachelinum var. cinereofuscescens Vain., Calicium trachelinum var. cinereorufescens Vain., Calicium trachelinum var. elattosporum F. Wilson, Calicium trachelinum var. hemiplodum Nyl. ex Leight., Calicium trachelinum var. meiocarpum F. Wilson, Calicium trachelinum var. rufescens Vain., Calicium trachelinum var. salicinum (Pers.) Sacc., Calicium trachelinum var. trachelinum Ach., Calicium xylonellum Ach., Cyphelium trachelinum (Ach.) Chevall., Phacotrum sphaerocephalum, Sphinctrina trachelinum (Ach.) Leight.]
Blue Ridge, source: unpublished checklist provided by R.C. Harris (NY).; Perlmutter, Gary B. 4190 [NCU], [no data available] [FH]
[Calicium roscidum var. trabinellum (Ach.) Schaer., Chaenotheca trabinella (Sm.) A.L. Sm., Lichen trabinellus Sm., Phacotrum trabinellum (Sm.) Gray]
source: Lendemer, J.C. & R. Yahr. 2004. A checklist of the lichens collected during the Tuckerman Workshop #12, Outer Banks, North Carolina, USA. Evansia 21(3): 118 - 136.; Richard C. Harris 13693A [NY]
[Callopisma camptidium (Tuck.) Müll.Arg., Lecanora camptidia Tuck., Lecidea camptidia (Tuck.) Hue, Obscuroplaca camptidia (Tuck.) Søchting, Arup & Bungartz, Phaeoplaca camptidia (Tuck.) Søchting, Arup & Bungartz, Placodium camptidium (Tuck.) Tuck.]
floodplain forest; partly sunny; Substrate: fallen hardwood branch; Perlmutter, Gary B. 1867 [NCU], Perlmutter, Gary B. 2285 [NCU]
[Blastenia cerina (Hedw.) B. de Lesd., Callopisma cerinum (Hedw.) De Not., Callopisma cerinum f. cerinum (Hedw.) De Not., Callopisma cerinum f. saxicola Arnold, Callopisma cerinum var. austroamericana Räsänen, Callopisma cerinum var. austroamericanum Räsänen, Callopisma cerinum var. cerinum (Hedw.) De Not., Callopisma cerinum var. cyanoleprum (DC.) Walt. Watson, Callopisma cerinum var. fuscum A. Massal., Callopisma cerinum var. microcarpum Müll.Arg., Callopisma cerinum var. sorocarpa Vain., Caloplaca cerina f. cerina (Hedw.) Th. Fr., Caloplaca cerina var. anthracina (Ach.) H. Olivier, Caloplaca cerina var. cerina, Caloplaca cerina var. chloroleuca (Sm.) Th. Fr., Caloplaca cerina var. cyanolepra (DC.) J.J. Kickx, Caloplaca cerina var. ehrhartii (Schaer.) Trevis., Caloplaca cerina var. microcarpa (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Lecanora cerina (Hedw.) Ach., Lecanora cerina var. cerina (Hedw.) Ach., Lecanora cerina var. squamulosa Wedd, Lecidea cerina (Hedw.) Schaer., Lecidea cerina var. cerina (Ehrh. ex Hedw.) Schaer., Lecidea cerina var. ehrhartii Schaer., Lichen cerinus Hedw., Parmelia cerina (Hedw.) Ach., Parmelia cerina var. cerina (Ehrh. ex Hedw.) Ach., Parmelia cerina var. chrysaspis Ach., Parmelia cerina var. ravida (Hoffm.) Ach., Patellaria cerina (Hedw.) Hoffm., Patellaria cerina var. cerina (Ehrh. ex Hedw.) Hoffm., Patellaria cerina var. cyanolepra DC., Placodium cerinum (Hedw.) Nägeli ex Hepp, Placodium cerinum f. cerinum (Hedw.) Nägeli ex Hepp, Placodium cerinum f. dispersum (H. Olivier) Szatala, Placodium cerinum f. fuscum (A. Massal.) Szatala, Placodium cerinum var. cerinum (Hedw.) Nägeli ex Hepp, Placodium cerinum var. flavum Anzi, Rinodina cerina (Hedw.) Gray, Teloschistes cerinus (Hedw.) Norman, Verrucaria cerina (Hedw.) Hoffm., Zeora cerina (Hedw.) Flot., Zeora cerina var. cerina (Ehrh. ex Hedw.) Flot.]
Piedmont, source: Perlmutter, G.B. 2006. Lichen inventory of the North Carolina Piedmont. Castanea 71(4): 282-294.; Perlmutter, Gary B. 4144 [NCU], Perlmutter, Gary B. 4268 [NCU]
[Callopisma citrinellum (Duby) Arnold, Patellaria citrinella Duby, Placodium citrinellum (Duby) Hepp, Solitaria chrysophthalma (Degel.) Arup, Søchting & Frödén]
source: Lendemer, J.C. & R. Yahr. 2004. A checklist of the lichens collected during the Tuckerman Workshop #12, Outer Banks, North Carolina, USA. Evansia 21(3): 118 - 136.
[Blastenia cinnabarina (Ach.) Lindau, Brownliella cinnabarina (Ach.) S.Y. Kondr., Kärnefelt, A. Thell, Elix, Jung Kim, A.S. Kondr. & Hur, Callopisma cinnabarinum (Ach.) Müll.Arg., Callopisma cinnabarinum var. opacum Müll.Arg., Caloplaca cinnabarina var. opaca (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Lecanora cinnabarina Ach., Parmelia cinnabarina (Ach.) Spreng., Placodium cinnabarinum (Ach.) Nyl., Urceolaria tessellata Taylor]
Piedmont, source: Wetmore, C.M. and E.I. Kärnefelt. 1999. What is Caloplaca cinnabarina? The Bryologist 102(4): 683-691.
[Blastenia citrina (Hoffm.) B. de Lesd., Callopisma citrinum (Hoffm.) A. Massal., Caloplaca citrina f. citrina (Hoffm.) Th. Fr., Caloplaca citrina var. citrina (Hoffm.) Th. Fr., Caloplaca citrinella (Hoffm.) Hepp, Caloplaca incrustans var. citrina (Hoffm.) B. de Lesd., Flavoplaca citrina (Hoffm.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting, Lecanora citrina (Hoffm.) Ach., Lecidea citrina (Hoffm.) D. Dietr., Lichen citrinus (Hoffm.) Ach., Parmelia citrina (Hoffm.) Ach., Parmelia citrina var. citrina (Hoffm.) Ach., Placodium citrinum (Hoffm.) Hepp, Placodium citrinum f. citrinum (Hoffm.) Th. Fr., Placodium citrinum var. citrinum (Hoffm.) Th. Fr., Placodium citrinum var. vulcanica Räsänen, Pyrenodesmia citrina (Hoffm.) Trevis., Verrucaria citrina Hoffm.]
coastal; shady; Substrate: mortar from brick pile; Newman, Randy 2006-03-27 [NCU]
[Callopisma aurantiacum var. subgilvum Müll.Arg., Caloplaca aurantiaca f. dealbata Th. Fr., Caloplaca aurantiaca f. fulva Zahlbr., Caloplaca aurantiaca var. diffracta Lojka, Caloplaca aurantiaca var. ecrustacea Erichsen, Caloplaca aurantiaca var. suberythrella (Nyl.) H. Olivier, Caloplaca aurantiaca var. subgilva (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Caloplaca aurantiaca var. velana (A. Massal.) Flagey, Caloplaca flavorubescens f. flavorubescens (Huds.) J.R. Laundon, Caloplaca flavorubescens f. microthelia (Ach.) Verseghy, Caloplaca flavorubescens subsp. flavorubescens (Huds.) J.R. Laundon, Caloplaca flavorubescens var. flavorubescens (Huds.) J.R. Laundon, Gyalolechia flavorubescens (Hudson) Søchting, Frödén & Arup, Lecanora aurantiaca var. microthelia (Ach.) Nyl., Lichen flavorubescens Huds., Parmelia microthelia Ach.]
Coastal Plain, source: Lendemer, J.C. 2007. Contributions to the lichen flora of North Carolina: new and interesting records of lichens and lichenicolous fungi. Evansia 24(4): 98-102.
[Biatora aurantiaca var. erythrella (Ach.) Mont., Blastenia flavovirescens (Wulfen) B. de Lesd., Callopisma aurantiacum var. flavovirescens (Wulfen) A. Massal., Callopisma aurantiacum var. inalpinum (Ach.) Arnold, Callopisma flavovirescens (Wulfen) A. Massal., Callopisma flavovirescens f. flavovirescens (Wulfen) A. Massal., Caloplaca aurantiaca var. erythrella (Ach.) Th. Fr., Caloplaca aurantiaca var. flavovirescens (Wulfen) Th. Fr., Caloplaca aurantiaca var. inalpina (Ach.) H. Magn., Caloplaca erythrella (Ach.) Kieff., Caloplaca flavorubescens subsp. flavovirescens (Wulfen) Clauzade & Cl. Roux, Caloplaca flavovirescens f. flavovirescens (Wulfen) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Caloplaca flavovirescens var. flavovirescens (Wulfen) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Caloplaca flavovirescens var. inalpina (Ach.) Zahlbr., Gyalolechia flavovirescens (Wulfen) Søchting, Frödén & Arup, Laundonia flavovirescens (Wulfen) S.Y. Kondr., Lőkös & Hur, Lecanora aurantiaca f. erythrella (Ach.) Nyl., Lecanora aurantiaca f. flavovirescens (Wulfen) Hoffm., Lecanora aurantiaca subsp. erythrella (Ach.) Nyl. ex Cromb., Lecanora aurantiaca var. erythrella (Ach.) Nyl., Lecanora aurantiaca var. inalpina (Ach.) Leight., Lecanora erythrella (Ach.) Ach., Lecanora erythrella var. erythrella (Ach.) Ach., Lecanora flavovirescens (Wulfen) Duby, Lecanora inalpina Ach., Lecanora salicina var. erythrella (Ach.) Sommerf., Lecidea aurantiaca var. flavovirescens (Wulfen) Schaer., Lecidea erythrella (Ach.) Schaer., Lecidea erythrella var. flavovirescens (Wulfen) Schaer., Lecidea flavovirescens (Wulfen) Fr., Lichen erythrellus Ach., Lichen flavovirescens Wulfen, Parmelia erythrella (Ach.) Ach., Patellaria flavovirescens (Wulfen) Hoffm., Placodium aurantiacum var. flavovirescens (Wulfen) Naeg. ex Hepp, Placodium aurantiacum var. inalpinum (Ach.) H. Magn., Placodium flavovirescens (Wulfen) Vain., Placodium flavovirescens var. flavovirescens (Wulfen) Vain., Rinodina erythrella (Ach.) Gray, Verrucaria flavovirescens (Wulfen) Hoffm., Zeora aurantiaca var. flavovirescens (Wulfen) Flot.]
[Athallia holocarpa (Hoffm.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting, Biatora luteoalba var. holocarpa (Hoffm.) Steud. & Hochst., Blastenia luteoalba var. holocarpa (Hoffm.) Müll. Arg., Callopisma aurantiacum var. holocarpum (Hoffm.) A. Massal., Callopisma holocarpum (Hoffm.) Müll. Arg., Callopisma luteoalbum var. holocarpum (Hoffm.) Mudd, Callopisma pyraceum f. holocarpum (Hoffm.) Arnold, Caloplaca alcarum Poelt, Caloplaca balatonica Szatala, Caloplaca cerina var. holocarpa (Hoffm.) H. Olivier, Caloplaca holocarpa var. holocarpa (Hoffm.) A.E. Wade, Caloplaca holocarpa var. vitellinaria (Szatala) Clauzade & Cl. Roux, Caloplaca pyracea f. holocarpa (Ehrh.) Oxner, Caloplaca pyracea var. holocarpa (Ehrh.) Th. Fr., Caloplaca vitellinaria Szatala, Gasparrinia alcarum (Poelt) Oxner nom. inval., Lecanora cerina f. holocarpa (Hoffm.) Nyl., Lecanora cerina var. holocarpa (Hoffm.) Nyl., Lecanora holocarpa (Hoffm.) Nyl., Lecanora pyracea f. holocarpa (Hoffm.) Harm., Lecanora vitellina var. holocarpa (Hoffm.) Link, Lecidea aurantiaca var. holocarpa (Hoffm.) Hepp, Lecidea holocarpa (Ehrh.) Röhl., Lecidea luteoalba var. holocarpa (Hoffm.) Ach., Lichen holocarpus Ehrh., Parmelia luteoalba var. holocarpa (Hoffm.) Bosch, Parmelia vitellina f. holocarpa (Hoffm.) Fr., Parmelia vitellina var. holocarpa (Hoffm.) Ach., Patellaria holocarpa (Ehrh.) Wallr., Placodium aurantiacum var. holocarpum (Hoffm.) Anzi, Placodium cerinum var. holocarpa (Hoffm.) Vain., Placodium pyraceum var. holocarpum (Hoffm.) Anzi, Verrucaria holocarpa Hoffm., Zeora vitellina var. holocarpa (Hoffm.) Flot.]
floodplain forest; partly sunny; Substrate: fallen hardwood branch; Perlmutter, Gary B. 1863-a [NCU], Newman, Randy 2006-03-27 [NCU], Perlmutter, Gary B. 266 [NCU]
[Callopisma conglomeratum Bagl., Caloplaca amabilis Zahlbr., Caloplaca arizonica E.D. Rudolph (non H. Magn.) nom. illegit., Caloplaca conglomerata (Bagl.) Jatta, Caloplaca conglomerata var. conglomerata (Bagl.) Jatta, Caloplaca pelodella (Nyl.) Hasse, Caloplaca peregrina Samp., Caloplaca plumbeo-olivacea H. Magn., Caloplaca sideritis var. elaeodes E.D. Rudolph, Lecanora pellodella Nyl., Pyrenodesmia elaeodes E.D. Rudolph, Pyrenodesmia pellodella (Nyl.) E. Rud. nom inval.]
[Blastenia pollinii A. Massal., Callopisma ferrugineum var. pollinii (A. Massal.) Bagl., Callopisma pollinii (A. Massal.) Trevis., Caloplaca cinnamomea subsp. nigricans (Nyl.) Malme, Caloplaca phaeocarpella (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Caloplaca pollinii var. major B. de Lesd., Caloplaca pollinii var. pollinii (A. Massal.) Jatta, Huneckia pollinii (A. Massal.) S.Y. Kondr., Kärnefelt, Elix, A. Thell, Jung Kim, A.S. Kondr. & Hur, Lecanora ferruginea var. nigricans Nyl., Lecanora phaeocarpella Nyl., Lecanora pollinii (A. Massal.) Massee, Lecidea phaeocarpella (Nyl.) Hue, Lecidea pollinii (A. Massal.) Hue, Physcia phaeocarpa (Nyl.) Hue, Placodium ferrugineum f. pollinii (A. Massal.) Tuck., Placodium ferrugineum subsp. pollinii (A. Massal.) Fink, Placodium ferrugineum var. pollinii (A. Massal.) Hepp, Placodium phaeocarpellum (Nyl.) A.L. Sm., Placodium pollinii (A. Massal.) A.L. Sm.]
Piedmont, source: Wetmore, C.M. 1994. The lichen genus Caloplaca in North and Central America with brown or black apothecia. Mycologia 86(6): 813-838.
Piedmont, Holotype: A.W. Evans 411 (27 Dec 1927) from Polk County (UPS), source: Perlmutter, G.B. 2006. Lichen inventory of the North Carolina Piedmont. Castanea 71(4): 282-294.
[Lendemeriella reptans (Lendemer & B.P. Hodk.) S.Y. Kondr.]
Blue Ridge, source: Hodkinson, B.P. & J.C. Lendemer. 2012. Phylogeny and Taxonomy of an enigmatic lichen species. Systematic Botany 37(4): 835-844
[Lecanora sideritis Tuck., Placodium cerinum var. sideritis Tuck., Placodium sideritis (Tuck.) Fink]
Mafic glade w/ rock outcrops on steep S-facing slope; partly shaded; Substrate: rock; Perlmutter, Gary B. 1411 [NCU]
[Blastenia novomexicana Fink ex J. Hedrick, Callopisma americanum Malme, Callopisma aurantiacum var. irrubescens Arnold, Callopisma irrubescens (Arnold) Arnold, Caloplaca americana (Malme) Zahlbr., Caloplaca aurantia var. irrubescens (Arnold) Jatta, Caloplaca irrubescens (Arnold) Zahlbr., Caloplaca modesta (Zahlbr.) Fink, Caloplaca novomexicana (Fink) ined., Caloplaca subsoluta f. subsoluta (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Lecanora murorum var. subsoluta Nyl., Lecanora subsoluta (Nyl.) Nyl., Physcia subsoluta (Nyl.) Arnold, Placodium americanum (Malme) Räsänen, Placodium aurantiacum subsp. irrubescens (Arnold) A.L. Sm., Placodium subsolutum (Nyl.) H. Olivier, Squamulea subsoluta (Nyl.) Arup, Søchting & Frödén, Teloschistes modestus (Zahlbr.) Fink, Xanthoria modesta Zahlbr.]
Piedmont/Fall Line; Perlmutter, Gary B. 2575 [NCU]
[Callopisma xanthostigmoideum (Räsänen) Räsänen, Caloplaca discolor (Willey) Fink, Caloplaca ferruginea var. discolor (Willey) Zahlbr., Gyalolechia xanthostigmoidea (Räsänen) Søchting, Frödén & Arup, Placodium ferrugineum f. discolor Willey ex Tuck., Placodium xanthostigmoidea Räsänen]
Blue Ridge, source: Wetmore, C.M. 2001. The Caloplaca citrina group in North and Central America. The Bryologist 104(1): 1-11
[Blasteniospora concolor (Dicks.) Trevis., Caloplaca concolor (Dicks.) Jatta, Caloplaca concolor var. concolor (Dicks.) Jatta, Caloplaca concolor var. vainioana Räsänen, Candelaria concolor f. concolor (Dicks.) Arnold, Candelaria concolor var. concolor (Dicks.) Arnold, Candelaria concolor var. effusa (Tuck.) G. Merr. & Burnham, Candelaria vulgaris A. Massal., Candelaria vulgaris f. vulgaris A. Massal., Lecanora concolor (Dicks.) Lamy, Lecanora concolor f. concolor Ramond, Lecanora concolor f. elata (Arnold) Mig., Lecanora concolor var. concolor Ramond, Lecanora concolor var. reagens Werner, Lichen concolor Dicks., Lobaria concolor (Dicks.) Hoffm., Physcia concolor (Dicks.) Bagl. & Carestia, Teloschistes concolor (Dicks.) Tuck., Teloschistes concolor var. concolor (Dicks.) Tuck., Xanthoria concolor (Dicks.) Th. Fr.]
[Parmelia fibrosa Fr.]
floodplain forest; partly sunny; Substrate: fallen hardwood branch; Perlmutter, Gary B. 1831 [NCU], Rivas Plata, Eimy 2011-09-24 [NCU], Martyn J. Dibben 20195 [MIL]
[Blastenia xanthostigma (Pers. ex Ach.) Müll. Arg., Caloplaca xanthostigma (Pers. ex Ach.) H. Olivier, Candelaria xanthostigma (Pers. ex Ach.) Kieff., Candelariella lutella (Vain.) Räsänen, Candelariella vitellina f. lutella (Vain.) Zahlbr., Candelariella vitellina var. xanthostigma (Pers. ex Ach.) Elenkin, Lecanora xanthostigma (Pers. ex Ach.) Röhl., Lecanora xanthostigma var. lutella Vain., Lecanora xanthostigma var. xanthostigma (Pers. ex Ach.) Röhl., Lichen xanthostigmus Pers. ex Ach.]
Blue Ridge, source: Lendemer, J.C., R.C. Harris and E.A. Tripp. 2013. The lichens and allied fungi of Great Smoky Mountains National Park: an annotated checklist with comprehensive keys. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden Volume 104: 1-152.
[Canoparmelia caroliniana (Nyl.) Elix & Hale, Parmelia caroliniana Nyl., Pseudoparmelia caroliniana (Nyl.) Hale]
[Parmelia amazonica Nyl., Parmelinella amazonica (Nyl.) A.S.Rodrigues, A.P.Lorenz & Canez, Pseudoparmelia amazonica (Nyl.) Hale]
source: Lendemer, J.C. & R. Yahr. 2004. A checklist of the lichens collected during the Tuckerman Workshop #12, Outer Banks, North Carolina, USA. Evansia 21(3): 118 - 136.
[Parmelia sublaevigata var. texana (Tuck.) Nyl., Parmelia texana Tuck., Pseudoparmelia texana (Tuck.) Hale]
[Lecidea amabilis B. de Lesd., Lecidea austrocalifornica Zahlbr., Lecidea subcontinuior B. de Lesd., Mycobilimbia austrocalifornica (Zahlbr.) Knudsen]
Blue Ridge, source: unpublished checklist provided by R.C. Harris (NY).
[Bacidia declinis (Tuck.) Zahlbr., Biatora declinis Tuck., Biatorina nigroclavata (Nyl.) Arnold, Bilimbia declinis (Tuck.) Fink, Lecidea declinis Nyl., Lecidea nigroclavata Nyl., Microlecia nigroclavata (Nyl.) M. Choisy]
Blue Ridge, source: unpublished checklist provided by R.C. Harris (NY).
[Biatora atropurpurea (Schaer.) Hepp, Biatorina atropurpurea (Schaer.) A. Massal., Biatorina atropurpurea var. atropurpurea (Schaer.) A. Massal., Biatorina atropurpurea var. microspora Arnold, Bilimbia atropurpurea (Schaer.) Branth & Rostr., Catillaria atropurpurea (Schaer.) Th. Fr., Catillaria atropurpurea f. atropurpurea (Schaer.) Th. Fr., Catillaria atropurpurea f. ecrustacea Szatala, Catillaria atropurpurea f. gyaliza (Nyl.) Vain., Catillaria atropurpurea f. microspora (Arnold) H. Olivier, Catillaria atropurpurea subsp. neuschildii (Körb.) Th. Fr., Lecanora atropurpurea (Schaer.) Hedl., Lecidea atropurpurascens Nyl., Lecidea atropurpurea (Schaer.) Leight., Lecidea intermixta Nyl., Lecidea intermixta var. lignaria Nyl., Lecidea sphaeroides var. atropurpurea Schaer., Patellaria atropurpurea (Schaer.) Müll. Arg.]
Blue Ridge, source: Lendemer, J.C., R.C. Harris and E.A. Tripp. 2013. The lichens and allied fungi of Great Smoky Mountains National Park: an annotated checklist with comprehensive keys. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden Volume 104: 1-152.
[Cladonia linearis A. Evans, Gymnoderma lineare (A. Evans) Yoshim. & Sharp]
Blue Ridge, FEDERALLY ENDANGERED SPECIES, source: Wei, J-C and T. Ahti. 2002. Cetradonia, a new genus in the new family Cetradoniaceae (Lecanorales, Ascomycota). Lichenologist 34: 19-31.; Finnegan, John s.n. [NCU]
[Bryopogon aculeatus (Schreb.) Hazsl., Cetraria aculeata f. aculeata (Schreb.) Fr., Cetraria aculeata var. aculeata (Schreb.) Fr., Cetraria aculeata var. sorediata Du Rietz, Cetraria tenuissima (L.) Vain., Cetraria tenuissima f. lignicola Erichsen, Cetraria tenuissima f. sorediella Erichsen, Cetraria tenuissima f. tenuissima (L.) Vain., Cetraria tenuissima var. campestris (Schaer.) Erichsen, Cetraria tenuissima var. tenuissima (L.) Vain., Cladonia aculeata (Schreb.) Baumg., Coelocaulon aculeatum (Schreb.) Link, Coelocaulon aculeatum f. aculeatum (Schreb.) Link, Coelocaulon aculeatum f. sorediatum (Du Rietz) D. Hawksw., Coelocaulon aculeatum subsp. aculeatum (Schreb.) Link, Coelocaulon tenuissimum (L.) R. Howe, Coralloides aculeatum (Schreb.) Hoffm., Cornicularia aculeata (Schreb.) Ach., Cornicularia aculeata f. acanthella (Ach.) H. Magn., Cornicularia aculeata f. aculeata (Schreb.) Ach., Cornicularia aculeata f. crinita (Flörke) Grummann, Cornicularia aculeata f. edentula (Ach.) Grummann, Cornicularia aculeata f. inermis (Harm.) Grummann, Cornicularia aculeata f. lignicola (Erichsen) Grummann, Cornicularia aculeata f. minutella (Harm.) Lettau, Cornicularia aculeata f. sorediella (Erichsen) Grummann, Cornicularia aculeata f. tenuis Å.E. Dahl, Cornicularia aculeata var. aculeata (Schreb.) Ach., Cornicularia aculeata var. alpina Schaer., Cornicularia aculeata var. campestris (Schaer.) Rabenh., Cornicularia aculeata var. crinita Flörke, Cornicularia aculeata var. edentula Ach., Cornicularia aculeata var. sorediata (Du Rietz) Du Rietz, Cornicularia aculeata var. spadicea (Roth) Ach., Cornicularia spadicea (Roth) Ach., Cornicularia tenuissima (L.) Zahlbr., Cornicularia tenuissima f. acanthella (Ach.) Räsänen, Cornicularia tenuissima f. alpina (Schaer.) Erichsen, Cornicularia tenuissima f. crinita (Flörke) Zahlbr., Cornicularia tenuissima f. edentula (Ach.) Erichsen, Cornicularia tenuissima f. inermis (Harm.) Zahlbr., Cornicularia tenuissima f. minutella (Harm.) Zahlbr., Cornicularia tenuissima f. sorediella (Erichsen) Zahlbr., Cornicularia tenuissima f. spadicea (Roth) Navàs, Cornicularia tenuissima f. tenuissima (L.) Zahlbr., Cornicularia tenuissima var. acanthella (Ach.) Zahlbr., Cornicularia tenuissima var. alpina (Schaer.) Zahlbr., Cornicularia tenuissima var. edentula (Ach.) Zahlbr., Cornicularia tenuissima var. spadicea (Roth) Keissl., Cornicularia tenuissima var. tenuissima (L.) Zahlbr., Lichen aculeatus Schreb., Lichen spadiceus Roth, Lichen tenuissimus L., Lobaria aculeata (Schreb.) Hoffm., Parmelia aculeata (Schreb.) Spreng., Parmelia spadicea (Roth) Spreng., Platysma aculeatum (Schreb.) Frege]
Blue Ridge, source: Mozingo, H.N. 1954. Two notable additions to the lichen flora of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. The Bryologist 57(1): 31 - 32.
Blue Ridge, source: Heiman, K. 1996. Macrolichens of the Blue Ridge Parkway in North Carolina. Evansia 13: 47 - 57.; James C. Lendemer 599 [PH]
[Cetraria islandica f. islandica (L.) Ach., Cetraria islandica f. platyna (Ach.) Bausch, Cetraria islandica subsp. crispiformis (Räsänen) Kärnefelt, Cetraria islandica subsp. islandica, Cetraria islandica var. crispiformis Räsänen, Cetraria islandica var. islandica (L.) Ach., Cetraria islandica var. platyna (Ach.) Ach., Cetraria platyna Ach., Cornicularia islandica (L.) Mart., Lichen islandicus L., Lichen islandicus var. islandicus L., Lichenoides islandicum (L.) Hoffm., Lobaria islandica (L.) Hoffm., Parmelia islandica (L.) Hepp, Physcia islandica (L.) Michx., Platyphyllum islandicum (L.) Vent., Platysma islandicum (L.) Ferge]
Blue Ridge, source: Dey, J.P. 1978. Fruticose and foliose lichens of the high-mountain areas of the southern Appalachians. The Bryologist 81(1): 1 - 93.
[Cetraria delisei (Nyl.) Vain., Cetraria delisei f. delisei (Bory ex Schaer.) Nyl., Cetraria delisei f. dilatata (Vain.) Rass., Cetraria delisei f. media (Savicz) Rass., Cetraria delisei f. subdilatata (Vain.) Hasselrot, Cetraria delisei subsp. delisei (Bory ex Schaer.) Nyl., Cetraria delisei subsp. fastigiata Delise ex Nyl., Cetraria delisei var. delisei (Bory ex Schaer.) Nyl., Cetraria delisei var. dilatata (Vain.) Hasselrot, Cetraria delisei var. tenuis (Räsänen) Hasselrot, Cetraria hiascens (Fr.) Th. Fr., Cetraria hiascens f. angustata Norfl.{?} ex Räsänen, Cetraria hiascens f. delisei (Bory) Rass., Cetraria hiascens f. dilatata Rass., Cetraria hiascens f. fastigiata Delise, Cetraria hiascens f. hiascens (Fr.) Th. Fr., Cetraria hiascens f. media Savicz, Cetraria hiascens f. subdilatata Vain., Cetraria hiascens var. delisei (Bory) Vain., Cetraria hiascens var. dilatata Vain., Cetraria hiascens var. hiascens (Fr.) Th. Fr., Cetraria hiascens var. rhizophora Vain., Cetraria hiascens var. tenuis Räsänen, Cetraria islandica var. delisei Bory ex Shaer.]
source: Fink, B. 1935. The Lichen Flora of the United States. Ann Arbor, The University of Michigan Press.
[Imbricaria cetrarioides (Delise) Arnold, Parmelia cetrarioides Delise, Parmelia cetrarioides f. assaortiana Sambo, Parmelia cetrarioides f. cetrarioides Delise, Parmelia cetrarioides f. cretaceoides (Gyeln.) Gyeln., Parmelia cetrarioides f. ecyphellata Räsänen, Parmelia cetrarioides f. esorediata (Vain.) Hillmann, Parmelia cetrarioides f. flavidoalbida Hillmann, Parmelia cetrarioides f. glabra Sambo, Parmelia cetrarioides f. pruinosa Hillmann, Parmelia cetrarioides f. pseudofallax (Gyeln.) Gyeln., Parmelia cetrarioides f. scabra Sambo, Parmelia cetrarioides var. cetrarioides Delise, Parmelia cetrarioides var. sorediata (Schaer.) Frey, Parmelia perlata ß cetrarioides (Delise) Delise ex Duby, Parmotrema cetrarioides (Delise) M. Choisy, Parmotrema cetrarioides subsp. cetrarioides (Delise) M. Choisy]
Blue Ridge, source: McCune, B., J. Dey, J. Peck, K. Heiman & S. Will-Wolf. 1997. Regional gradients in lichen communities of the southeast United States. The Bryologist 100(2): 145 - 458.; Schweinitz, L.D. von s.n. [PH]
[Cetraria chicitae W.L. Culb.]
Blue Ridge, source: McCune, B., J. Dey, J. Peck, K. Heiman & S. Will-Wolf. 1997. Regional gradients in lichen communities of the southeast United States. The Bryologist 100(2): 145 - 458.; Perlmutter, Gary B. 2758 [NCU]
[Imbricaria olivetorum (Ach.) Arnold, Parmelia cetrarioides var. rubescens (Th. Fr.) Du Rietz, Parmelia olivaria (Ach.) Th. Fr., Parmelia olivaria f. aradensis (Gyeln.) Gyeln., Parmelia olivaria f. subvenosa Gyeln., Parmelia olivaria var. albosuffusa Gyeln., Parmelia olivaria var. esorediata (Vain.) Zahlbr., Parmelia olivaria var. olivetorum (Ach.) Gyeln., Parmelia olivaria var. sorediosa (Vain.) Zahlbr., Parmelia olivetorum Nyl., Parmelia olivetorum var. esorediata Vain., Parmelia olivetorum var. hypomelaena Kremp., Parmelia olivetorum var. hyporysalea Vain., Parmelia olivetorum var. olivetorum Nyl., Parmelia olivetorum var. sorediosa Vain., Parmelia perlata var. olivetorum Ach., Parmotrema cetrarioides subsp. rubescens (Th. Fr.) M. Choisy, Rimelia olivaria (Ach.) Hale & A. Fletcher nom. rejic.]
[Allodium brunneolum (Ach.) Kieff., Calicium brunneolum Ach., Calicium melanophaeum subsp. brunneolum (Ach.) Nyl. ex Norrl., Calicium trichiale var. brunneolum (Ach.) Nyl., Chaenotheca hygophila, Cyphelium brunneolum (Ach.) De Not., Cyphelium trichiale var. brunneolum (Ach.) Mudd, Embolus brunneolus (Ach.) Wallr., Phacotium brunneolum (Ach.) Trevis.]
source: Lendemer, J.C. & R. Yahr. 2004. A checklist of the lichens collected during the Tuckerman Workshop #12, Outer Banks, North Carolina, USA. Evansia 21(3): 118 - 136.
[Calicium ferrugineum Turner, Calicium melanophaeum Ach., Calicium melanophaeum subsp. melanophaeum Ach., Calicium melanophaeum var. ferrugineum (Turner ex Sm.) Schaer., Calicium melanophaeum var. melanophaeum Ach., Calicium trichiale var. ferrugineum (Turner ex Sm.) Cromb., Chaenotheca melanophaea (Ach.) Zwackh, Chaenotheca melanophaea f. flavocitrina (Paulson) Keissl., Chaenotheca melanophaea f. melanophaea (Ach.) Zwackh, Chaenotheca melanophaea f. phaeopoda Nádv., Chaenotheca melanophaea f. umbellata Lettau, Chaenotheca melanophaea var. ferruginea (Turner ex Sm.) Lettau, Chaenotheca melanophaea var. flavocitrina Paulson, Chaenotheca melanophaea var. kutakii Nádv., Chaenotheca melanophaea var. melanophaea (Ach.) Zwackh, Cyphelium ferrugineum (Turner ex Sm.) Ach., Cyphelium melanophaeum (Ach.) Körb., Cyphelium trichiale var. ferrugineum (Turner ex Sm.) Mudd, Phacotium melanophaeum (Ach.) Trevis., Phacotrum ferrugineum (Turner ex Sm.) Gray]
Blue Ridge, source: unpublished checklist provided by R.C. Harris (NY).
[Calicium debile Turner & Borrer, Lichen debilis Sm.]
source: Lendemer, J.C. & R. Yahr. 2004. A checklist of the lichens collected during the Tuckerman Workshop #12, Outer Banks, North Carolina, USA. Evansia 21(3): 118 - 136.
Blue Ridge, source: Selva, S.B. 2010. New and interesting calicioid lichens and fungi from eastern North America. The Bryologist 113(2): 272-276.
Blue Ridge, source: Selva, S.B. 2010. New and interesting calicioid lichens and fungi from eastern North America. The Bryologist 113(2): 272-276.
Coastal Plain, source: Lendemer, J.C., J. Korcourková & K. Knudson. 2008. Studies in lichens and lichenicolous fungi: notes on some taxa from North America. Mycotaxon 105: 379-386.
Blue Ridge, source: Selva, S.B. 2010. New and interesting calicioid lichens and fungi from eastern North America. The Bryologist 113(2): 272-276.
[Calicium asikkalense Vain., Calicium floerkei Zahlbr., Calicium floerkei f. botryocarpum (B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr., Calicium floerkei f. floerkei Zahlbr., Calicium floerkei var. alboatrum (Flörke) Zahlbr., Calicium floerkei var. floerkei Zahlbr., Calicium floerkei var. parasitaster (Bagl. & Carestia) Zahlbr., Calicium floerkei var. polycephalum Timkó & Szatala, Calicium floerkei var. subtile (Hepp) Zahlbr., Calicium floerkei var. triste (Körb.) Zahlbr., Calicium pusillum Flörke, Calicium pusillum f. botryocarpum B. de Lesd., Calicium pusillum f. pusillum Röhl., Calicium pusillum var. alboatrum (Flörke) Rehm, Calicium pusillum var. parasitaster Bagl. & Carestia, Calicium pusillum var. pusillum Röhl., Calicium pusillum var. subtile Hepp, Calicium pusillum var. supparietinum Nyl., Calicium subpusillum Vain., Calicium subpusillum f. subpusillum Vain., Calicium subpusillum f. unicellulare Roms, Chaenothecopsis subpusilla (Vain.) Tibell, Cyphelium pusillum A. Massal., Mycocalicium pusillum (A. Massal.) Räsänen]
source: Sullivan, T.J. 1996. The lichens of Acadia National Park. A thesis submitted to the faculty of the graduate school of the University of Minnesota, Ph.D. UMI Dissertations. 243 pp.
Blue Ridge, source: Selva, S.B. 2010. New and interesting calicioid lichens and fungi from eastern North America. The Bryologist 113(2): 272-276.
low elevation rocky summit plant community; sunny; Substrate: quartzite pinnacle wall, S face; Perlmutter, Gary B. 588-P [NCU]
[Aspicilia caesiocinerea (Nyl. ex Malbr.) Arnold, Aspicilia caesiocinerea f. caesiocinerea (Nyl. ex Malbr.) Arnold, Aspicilia caesiocinerea f. hiitolensis Räsänen, Aspicilia caesiocinerea f. lignaria (H. Magn.) Räsänen, Aspicilia caesiocinerea f. polycarpa (H. Magn.) Szatala, Aspicilia caesiocinerea var. amphibola (Ach.) Szatala, Aspicilia caesiocinerea var. caesiocinerea (Nyl. ex Malbr.) Arnold, Aspicilia caesiocinerea var. isidiata (H. Magn.) Oxner, Aspicilia caesiocinerea var. laevigata (H. Magn.) Räsänen, Aspicilia caesiocinerea var. planior (J. Steiner) Szatala, Aspicilia caesiocinerea var. subdepressa (Nyl.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux, Lecanora caesiocinerea Nyl., Lecanora caesiocinerea f. caesiocinerea Nyl., Lecanora caesiocinerea f. hiltolensis (Räsänen) Zahlbr., Lecanora caesiocinerea f. obscurascens H. Magn., Lecanora caesiocinerea f. obscurata Nyl., Lecanora caesiocinerea f. pallidior H. Magn., Lecanora caesiocinerea f. peripterodes Nyl., Lecanora caesiocinerea f. plumbea H. Magn., Lecanora caesiocinerea f. polycarpa H. Magn., Lecanora caesiocinerea f. proluta Nyl., Lecanora caesiocinerea f. verrucosa H. Magn., Lecanora caesiocinerea var. amphibola (Ach.) H. Magn., Lecanora caesiocinerea var. caesiocinerea Nyl., Lecanora caesiocinerea var. eluta Nyl., Lecanora caesiocinerea var. isidiata H. Magn., Lecanora caesiocinerea var. laevigata H. Magn., Lecanora caesiocinerea var. planior J. Steiner, Lecanora gibbosa f. porinoidea (Flot.) Leight., Pachyospora caesiocinerea (Nyl.) M. Choisy, Zeora gibbosa var. porinoidea Flot.]
[Biscladinomyces Cif. & Tomas., Biseucladoniomyces Cif. & Tomas., Cenomyce Ach., Cladina (Nyl.) Nyl., Cladinomyces Cif. & Tomas., Cladoniomyces E.A. Thomas ex Cif. & Tomas., Eucladoniomyces Cif. & Tomas., Helopodium Ach. ex Michx., Scyphophorus Ach. ex Michx.]
Coastal Plain, Holotype (DUKE) from Onslow County, source: Culberson, W. L., C. F. Culberson & A. Johnson, 1982: A new endemic red-fruited Cladonia from the North Carolina coast. Mycologia 74: 662 - 667.
[Cladonia appalachensis Yoshim. & Sharp ex Lendemer & R.C. Harris [orth. error]]
[Cladina arbuscula (Wallr.) Hale & Culb., Cladonia sylvatica (L.) Rab., Cladonia sylvatica f. caerulescens Schade, Cladonia sylvatica f. decumbens Anders, Cladonia sylvatica f. fissa Anders, Cladonia sylvatica f. gigantea (Bory) Vain., Cladonia sylvatica f. grandis Flörke, Cladonia sylvatica f. inactiva Asahina, Cladonia sylvatica f. penicillata Anders, Cladonia sylvatica f. polycarpia Plk.{?}, Cladonia sylvatica f. pygmaea Sandst., Cladonia sylvatica f. sphagnoides (Hepp) Parrique, Cladonia sylvatica f. subspumosa Coem., Cladonia sylvatica f. turgida Anders, Cladonia sylvatica var. eusylvatica Kugan{?}, Cladonia sylvatica var. laevigata Vain., Cladonia sylvatica var. pycnoclada (Pers.) Pers., Cladonia sylvatica var. scabrosa Leight.]
[Cladina arbuscula subsp. mitis (Sandst.) Burgaz, Cladina mitis (Sandst.) Hustich, Cladina mitis f. arenicola Trass, Cladina mitis f. mitis (Sandst.) W.L. Culb., Cladina mitis f. spinulifera Trass, Cladonia arbuscula subsp. stictica Ruoss, Cladonia arbuscula var. mitis (Sandst.) Sipman, Cladonia mitis Sandst., Cladonia mitis f. soralifera Sandst., Cladonia mitis f. tenuis Sandst., Cladonia sylvatica var. mitis (Sandst.) Kušan]
Piedmont, source: Perlmutter, G.B. 2006. Lichen inventory of the North Carolina Piedmont. Castanea 71(4): 282-294.; Almeda, F. 931 [CAS]
[Cladonia santensis var. beaumontii Tuck.]
[Lichen botrytes K.G. Hagen]
Piedmont, source: Perlmutter, G.B. 2006. Lichen inventory of the North Carolina Piedmont. Castanea 71(4): 282-294.
[Baeomyces cenoteus Ach.]
Blue Ridge, source: Perry, J.D. & B.J. Moore. 1969. Preliminary check list of foliose and fruticose lichens in Buncombe County, North Carolina. Castanea 34: 146 - 157.
[Cenomyce allotropa var. verticillata (Hoffm.) Ach., Cladonia gracilis f. cervicornis (Ach.) Nyl., Cladonia gracilis subsp. verticillata (Hoffm.) Ahti, Cladonia gracilis var. verticillata (Hoffm.) Hornem.]
Blue Ridge, source: Heiman, K. 1996. Macrolichens of the Blue Ridge Parkway in North Carolina. Evansia 13: 47 - 57.
[Cenomyce chlorophaea Flörke ex Sommerf., Cladonia pyxidata subsp. chlorophaea (Flörke ex Sommerf.) V. Wirth, Cladonia pyxidata var. chlorophaea (Flörke ex Sommerf.) Flörke]
[Cladina ciliata (Stirt.) Trass, Cladina ciliata f. ciliata (Stirt.) Trass, Cladina ciliata f. tenuis (Flörke) Ahti, Cladina ciliata var. ciliata (Stirt.) Trass, Cladina ciliata var. tenuis (Flörke) Ahti & M.J. Lai, Cladina laxiuscula (Delise) Sandst., Cladina leucophaea (Abbayes) Hale & W.L. Culb., Cladina tenuis (Flörke) Hale & W.L. Culb., Cladonia ciliata f. flavicans (Flörke) Ahti & DePriest, Cladonia ciliata var. ciliata Stirt., Cladonia ciliata var. tenuis (Flörke) Ahti, Cladonia laxiuscula Delise, Cladonia rangiferina f. flavicans Flörke, Cladonia rangiferina f. tenuis Flörke, Cladonia sylvatica var. tenuis (Flörke) Kušan, Cladonia tenuis var. leucophaea (Abbayes) Ahti]
[Cladina ciliata (Stirt.) Trass, Cladina ciliata f. ciliata (Stirt.) Trass, Cladina ciliata f. tenuis (Flörke) Ahti, Cladina ciliata var. ciliata (Stirt.) Trass, Cladina ciliata var. tenuis (Flörke) Ahti & M.J. Lai, Cladina laxiuscula (Delise) Sandst., Cladina leucophaea (Abbayes) Hale & W.L. Culb., Cladina tenuis (Flörke) Hale & W.L. Culb., Cladonia ciliata Stirt., Cladonia ciliata f. flavicans (Flörke) Ahti & DePriest, Cladonia ciliata var. ciliata Stirt., Cladonia laxiuscula Delise, Cladonia rangiferina f. flavicans Flörke, Cladonia rangiferina f. tenuis Flörke, Cladonia sylvatica var. tenuis (Flörke) Kušan, Cladonia tenuis var. leucophaea (Abbayes) Ahti]
[Cladonia coccifera f. asotea (Ach.) Vain., Cladonia coccifera var. asotea Ach., Cladonia coccifera var. cornucopioides, Lichen cocciferus L., Scyphophorus cocciferus]
Blue Ridge, source: Lendemer, J.C. & E.A. Tripp. 2008. Contributions to the lichen flora of North Carolina: a preliminary checklist of the lichens of Gorges State Park. The Bryologist 111(1): 57-67.
[Cenomyce coniocraea Flörke, Cenomyce coniocraea var. coniocraea Flörke, Cenomyce coniocraea var. ramulosa Delise, Cladonia coniocraea f. ramulosa (Delise) M. Choisy]
source: Lendemer, J.C. & R. Yahr. 2004. A checklist of the lichens collected during the Tuckerman Workshop #12, Outer Banks, North Carolina, USA. Evansia 21(3): 118 - 136.; Culberson, William, L. 790 [DUKE], Almeda, F. 929b [CAS]
[Cladonia innominata Lendemer]
[Cladina conspicua Ahti]
Blue Ridge, source: unpublished checklist provided by R.C. Harris (NY).
[Cenomyce cornuta (L.) Dufour, Cenomyce cornuta var. cornuta (L.) Dufour, Cenomyce cornuta var. crassa Delise, Cladonia radiata var. cornuta (L.) M. Choisy, Lichen cornutus L., Scyphophorus cornutus (L.) Hook. f.]
Blue Ridge, source: Lendemer, J.C., R.C. Harris and E.A. Tripp. 2013. The lichens and allied fungi of Great Smoky Mountains National Park: an annotated checklist with comprehensive keys. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden Volume 104: 1-152.
[Cladonia cryptochlorophaea f. cryptochlorophaea Asahina, Cladonia cryptochlorophaea f. inactiva Asahina]
source: Lendemer, J.C. & R. Yahr. 2004. A checklist of the lichens collected during the Tuckerman Workshop #12, Outer Banks, North Carolina, USA. Evansia 21(3): 118 - 136.
Blue Ridge, Piedmont, source: McCune, B., J. Dey, J. Peck, K. Heiman & S. Will-Wolf. 1997. Regional gradients in lichen communities of the southeast United States. The Bryologist 100(2): 145 - 458.; Culberson, William, L. 8053 [DUKE]
[Cladonia abietiformis Harm., Cladonia congregata H. Magn., Cladonia congregata f. congregata H. Magn., Cladonia congregata f. subfarinosa H. Magn., Cladonia didyma f. didyma (Fée) Vain., Cladonia didyma f. squamulosa Robbins, Cladonia didyma f. subulata Sandst., Cladonia didyma subsp. didyma (Fée) Vain., Cladonia didyma var. didyma (Fée) Vain., Cladonia didyma var. muscigena (Eschw.) Vain., Cladonia didyma var. rugifera Vain., Cladonia didyma var. vulcanica (Zoll. & Moritzi) Vain., Cladonia isidioclada Mont. & Bosch, Cladonia macilenta var. subcarcata Räsänen, Cladonia melanodes Nyl., Cladonia muscigena Eschw., Cladonia pulchella Schwein., Cladonia sphaerulifera Taylor, Cladonia vulcanica Zoll. & Moritzi, Cladonia vulcanica f. isidioclada (Mont. & Bosch) Abbayes, Cladonia vulcanica f. melanodes (Nyl.) Abbayes, Cladonia vulcanica f. minor Robbins, Cladonia vulcanica f. vulcanica Zoll. & Moritzi, Scyphophorus didymus Fée]
[Cladonia abietiformis Harm., Cladonia congregata H. Magn., Cladonia congregata f. congregata H. Magn., Cladonia congregata f. subfarinosa H. Magn., Cladonia didyma (Fée) Vain., Cladonia didyma f. didyma (Fée) Vain., Cladonia didyma f. squamulosa Robbins, Cladonia didyma f. subulata Sandst., Cladonia didyma subsp. didyma (Fée) Vain., Cladonia didyma var. muscigena (Eschw.) Vain., Cladonia didyma var. rugifera Vain., Cladonia didyma var. vulcanica (Zoll. & Moritzi) Vain., Cladonia isidioclada Mont. & Bosch, Cladonia macilenta var. subcarcata Räsänen, Cladonia melanodes Nyl., Cladonia muscigena Eschw., Cladonia pulchella Schwein., Cladonia sphaerulifera Taylor, Cladonia vulcanica Zoll. & Moritzi, Cladonia vulcanica f. isidioclada (Mont. & Bosch) Abbayes, Cladonia vulcanica f. melanodes (Nyl.) Abbayes, Cladonia vulcanica f. minor Robbins, Cladonia vulcanica f. vulcanica Zoll. & Moritzi, Scyphophorus didymus Fée]
[Cladonia abietiformis Harm., Cladonia congregata H. Magn., Cladonia congregata f. congregata H. Magn., Cladonia congregata f. subfarinosa H. Magn., Cladonia didyma (Fée) Vain., Cladonia didyma f. didyma (Fée) Vain., Cladonia didyma f. squamulosa Robbins, Cladonia didyma f. subulata Sandst., Cladonia didyma subsp. didyma (Fée) Vain., Cladonia didyma var. didyma (Fée) Vain., Cladonia didyma var. muscigena (Eschw.) Vain., Cladonia didyma var. rugifera Vain., Cladonia isidioclada Mont. & Bosch, Cladonia macilenta var. subcarcata Räsänen, Cladonia melanodes Nyl., Cladonia muscigena Eschw., Cladonia pulchella Schwein., Cladonia sphaerulifera Taylor, Cladonia vulcanica Zoll. & Moritzi, Cladonia vulcanica f. isidioclada (Mont. & Bosch) Abbayes, Cladonia vulcanica f. melanodes (Nyl.) Abbayes, Cladonia vulcanica f. minor Robbins, Cladonia vulcanica f. vulcanica Zoll. & Moritzi, Scyphophorus didymus Fée]
[Cenomyce digitata (L.) Ach., Lichen digitatus L.]
Blue Ridge, source: Dey, J.P. 1978. Fruticose and foliose lichens of the high-mountain areas of the southern Appalachians. The Bryologist 81(1): 1 - 93.
[Cladonia caroliniana f. dilatata A. Evans, Cladonia caroliniana f. dimorphoclada (Robbins) A. Evans, Cladonia caroliniana f. fibrillosa A. Evans, Cladonia caroliniana f. prolifera A. Evans, Cladonia caroliniana f. tenuiramea A. Evans, Cladonia psoromica J. P. Dey]
source: Lendemer, J.C. & R. Yahr. 2004. A checklist of the lichens collected during the Tuckerman Workshop #12, Outer Banks, North Carolina, USA. Evansia 21(3): 118 - 136.; Evans, Alexander W. 717 [NCU], Evans, Alexander W. 494 [NCU], Evans, Alexander W. 768 [NCU], Evans, Alexander W. 663 [NCU], more...
[Cladina evansii (Abbayes) Hale & Culb., Cladina evansii f. evansii (Abbayes) Hale & W.L. Culb., Cladina evansii f. icterica (Abbayes) Ahti, Cladonia evansii f. evansii Abbayes, Cladonia evansii f. icterica Abbayes, Cladonia evansii f. laxior Abbayes, Cladonia rangiferina var. minor Michx.]
source: Lendemer, J.C. & R. Yahr. 2004. A checklist of the lichens collected during the Tuckerman Workshop #12, Outer Banks, North Carolina, USA. Evansia 21(3): 118 - 136.
[Cenomyce pyxidata var. fimbriata (L.) Ach., Cladonia fimbriata f. major (K.G. Hagen) Vain., Cladonia fimbriata var. major (K.G. Hagen) H. Magn., Cladonia major (K.G. Hagen) Sandst., Cladonia major f. major (K.G. Hagen) Sandst., Cladonia major f. prolifera (Retz.) Anders, Cladonia minor f. simplex (Weiss) M. Choisy, Lichen fimbriatus L., Lichen major K.G. Hagen, Lichen simplex Weiss]
source: Lendemer, J.C. & R. Yahr. 2004. A checklist of the lichens collected during the Tuckerman Workshop #12, Outer Banks, North Carolina, USA. Evansia 21(3): 118 - 136.; Almeda, Jr., Frank 930a [DUKE]
[Cenomyce carcata Ach., Cenomyce floerkeana Fr., Cladonia floerkeana f. carcata (Ach.) J.W. Thomson, Cladonia floerkeana f. intermedia (Hepp ex Vain.) J.W. Thomson, Cladonia floerkeana f. trachypoda (Nyl.) Harm., Cladonia floerkeana var. intermedia Hepp ex Vain., Cladonia floerkeana var. trachypoda Nyl., Cladonia macilenta f. intermedia (Hepp) M. Choisy, Cladonia macilenta var. carcata (Ach.) Nyl., Cladonia macilenta var. floerkeana (Fr.) M. Choisy]
maritime forest; partly shady; Substrate: wood fragment; Perlmutter, Gary B. 317 [NCU]
[Cenomyce allotropa var. corymbosa Ach., Cenomyce furcata (Huds.) Ach., Cenomyce furcata subsp. furcata (Huds.) Ach., Cenomyce furcata subsp. recurva Ach., Cenomyce furcata var. furcata (Huds.) Ach., Cladonia furcata f. pinnata (Flörke) Choisy, Cladonia furcata subsp. furcata (Huds.) Schrad., Cladonia furcata subsp. subrangiformis (Scriba ex Sandst.) Pišút, Cladonia furcata var. cancellata Müll.Arg., Cladonia furcata var. corymbosa (Ach.) Nyl., Cladonia furcata var. palamaea (Ach.) Nyl., Cladonia furcata var. pinnata (Flörke) Vain., Cladonia furcata var. subrangiformis (L. Scriba ex Sandst.) Hennipman, Cladonia furcata var. tenuicaulis Müll.Arg., Cladonia herrei Fink ex J. Hedrick, Cladonia narkodes Kremp., Cladonia palamaea (Ach.) Fink, Cladonia pinnata (Flörke) Anders, Cladonia racemosa Hoffm., Cladonia racemosa f. racemosa Hoffm., Cladonia racemosa f. spinescens (Hoffm.) M. Choisy, Cladonia racemosa var. racemosa Hoffm., Cladonia racemosa var. rigidula (A. Massal.) M. Choisy, Cladonia racemosa var. spinosa (Huds.) M. Choisy, Cladonia subrangiformis Sandst., Cladonia subrangiformis f. foliofera Szatala, Cladonia subrangiformis f. marmoladae Sambo, Cladonia subrangiformis f. pustarum Szatala, Cladonia subrangiformis f. spinulifera Trass, Cladonia subrangiformis f. subrangiformis L. Scriba ex Sandst., Cladonia subrangiformis f. subuliformis Szatala, Cladonia subrangiformis f. truncatula Szatala, Cladonia subrangiformis f. vagans Tomin, Cladonia subrangiformis var. praestigiosa Lettau, Cladonia subrangiformis var. subrangiformis L. Scriba ex Sandst., Lichen arietinus Dubois, Lichen spinosus Huds.]
[Capitularia gracilis (L.) Flörke, Cenomyce gracilis (L.) Dufour, Cenomyce gracilis var. corymbosa Delise, Cenomyce gracilis var. ecmocyna Ach., Cenomyce gracilis var. gracilis (L.) Ach., Cenomyce gracilis var. macroceras Delise, Cenomyce gracilis var. subulata Sommerf.]
Blue Ridge, Piedmont, source: Heiman, K. 1996. Macrolichens of the Blue Ridge Parkway in North Carolina. Evansia 13: 47 - 57.
[Cenomyce allotropa var. lomagona Ach., Cenomyce allotropa var. turbinata (Ach.) Ach., Cladonia gracilis var. turbinata (Ach.) Schaer., Cladonia pachyscypha Sandst., Lichen turbinatus Ach.]
[Cenomyce pyxidata var. conistea Delise, Cladonia conistea (Delise) Asahina, Cladonia conoidea Ahti, Cladonia humilis var. bougeanica A.W. Archer, Cladonia humilis var. bourgeanica A.W. Archer, Cladonia humilis var. humilis (With.) J.R. Laundon, Cladonia pyxidata f. conistea (Delise) Delise, Lichen humilis With.]
Blue Ridge, source: Heiman, K. 1996. Macrolichens of the Blue Ridge Parkway in North Carolina. Evansia 13: 47 - 57.
[Cenomyce brebissonii Delise, Cladonia brebissonii (Delise) Nyl., Cladonia brebissonii f. brebissonii (Delise) Parrique, Cladonia brebissonii f. incrassata (Flörke) M. Choisy, Cladonia brebissonii f. minor (Rabenh.) M. Choisy, Cladonia brebissonii subsp. brebissonii (Delise) Parrique, Cladonia brebissonii subsp. macilentoides M. Choisy, Cladonia brebissonii subsp. monguillonii (Harm.) M. Choisy, Cladonia brebissonii var. brebissonii (Delise) Parrique, Cladonia brebissonii var. tenella (Delise) M. Choisy, Cladonia coccifera var. incrassata (Flörke) Laurer, Cladonia cristatella var. paludicola Tuck., Cladonia heteroclada Asahina, Cladonia incrassata f. incrassata Flörke, Cladonia incrassata f. squamulosa (Robbins) A. Evans, Cladonia incrassata subsp. heteroclada (Asahina) Asahina, Cladonia incrassata subsp. incrassata Flörke, Cladonia leptopoda Nyl., Cladonia paludicola (Tuck.) G. Merr., Cladonia paludicola f. paludicola (Tuck.) G. Merr., Cladonia paludicola f. squamulosa Robbins]
source: Lendemer, J.C. & R. Yahr. 2004. A checklist of the lichens collected during the Tuckerman Workshop #12, Outer Banks, North Carolina, USA. Evansia 21(3): 118 - 136.
[Cenomyce bacillaris (Ach.) Ach., Cladonia bacillaris (Ach.) Nyl., Cladonia bacillaris f. bacillaris (Ach.) Nyl., Cladonia bacillaris f. mucronata (Delise) M. Choisy, Cladonia bacillaris f. nana Asahina, Cladonia bacillaris f. pityropoda Nyl., Cladonia bacillaris f. subscyphifera Vain., Cladonia bacillaris f. tingens Asahina, Cladonia bacillaris subsp. bacillaris, Cladonia bacillaris var. bacillaris (Ach.) Nyl., Cladonia bacillaris var. elegantor Vain., Cladonia bacillaris var. pacifica Asahina, Cladonia bacillaris var. tubaeformis (Mudd) M. Choisy, Cladonia balfourii Cromb., Cladonia balfourii f. balfourii Cromb., Cladonia balfourii f. chlorophaeoides (Vain.) Evans, Cladonia balfourii f. cornigera (Vain.) Oxner, Cladonia balfourii f. squamulosa A. Evans, Cladonia balfourii f. subprolifera (Vain.) A. Evans, Cladonia brebissonii var. ostreata (Nyl.) M. Choisy, Cladonia coccifera f. macilenta (Hoffm.) Mudd, Cladonia coccifera f. subulata Hoffm., Cladonia cylindrica var. squamigera (Vain.) M. Choisy, Cladonia cylindrica var. vermicularis (Rabenh.) M. Choisy, Cladonia fimbriata f. balfourii (Cromb.) Vain., Cladonia fimbriata var. balfourii (Cromb.) Vain., Cladonia floerkeana var. bacillaris (Leight.) Lynge, Cladonia macilenta f. squamigera (Vain.) Sandst., Cladonia macilenta subsp. bacillaris Ach., Cladonia macilenta var. flabellulata Müll.Arg., Cladonia macilenta var. ostreata Nyl., Cladonia macilenta var. scabrosa (Mudd) Cromb., Cladonia macilenta var. squamigera Vain., Cladonia ostreata (Nyl.) Britzelm., Scyphophorus filiformis]
Mixed Mesic Hardwood Forest with alluvial elements; shaded; Substrate: decaying log; Newman, Randy 2007-01-05 [NCU], Perlmutter, Gary B. 1693 [NCU], Perlmutter, Gary B. 2230 [NCU], Perlmutter, Gary B. 255 [NCU]
[Cladonia merochlorophaea f. inactiva Asahina]
Blue Ridge, source: Dey, J.P. 1978. Fruticose and foliose lichens of the high-mountain areas of the southern Appalachians. The Bryologist 81(1): 1 - 93.
[Cladonia caperatica Nuno, Cladonia coniocraea f. ceratodes (Flörke) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Cladonia coniocraea var. ochrochlora (Flörke) Oxner, Cladonia fimbriata f. ceratodes Flörke, Cladonia fimbriata var. ochrochlora (Flörke) Schaer., Cladonia furcata var. notabilis Müll.Arg., Cladonia invisa Robbins, Cladonia lepidula Kremp., Cladonia lepidula var. lepidula Kremp., Cladonia leprosula Magn., Cladonia ochrochlora f. ceratodes (Flörke) Harm., Cladonia ochrochlora var. spadicea Müll.Arg., Cladonia pergracilis Kremp.]
source: Lendemer, J.C. & R. Yahr. 2004. A checklist of the lichens collected during the Tuckerman Workshop #12, Outer Banks, North Carolina, USA. Evansia 21(3): 118 - 136.
[Cenomyce delicata Ach., Cladonia delicata (Ehrh.) Flörke, Cladonia delicata f. delicata (Ehrh.) Flörke, Cladonia delicata f. plumosa Harm., Cladonia delicata f. pulvinata Erichsen, Cladonia delicata f. scyphosa Zahlbr., Cladonia delicata f. squamosa Harm., Cladonia delicata var. delicata (Ehrh.) Flörke, Cladonia delicata var. scyphosa Zahlbr., Cladonia squamosa var. delicata (Ehrh.) Fr., Lichen parasiticus Hoffm.]
Coastal Plain, Holotype (DUKE) from Pender County, source: Culberson, C.F. & H. Kristinsson. 1969. Studies on the Cladonia chlorophaea group: a new species, a new meta-depside, and the identity of 'novochlorophaeic acid.' The Bryologist 72(4): 431 - 443.
[Cladonia capitata (Michx.) Spreng., Cladonia capitata f. abbreviata (Vain.) A. Evans, Cladonia capitata f. capitata (Michx.) Spreng., Cladonia capitata f. dissectula (G. Merr.) A. Evans, Cladonia capitata f. epiphylloma (A. Evans) A. Evans, Cladonia capitata f. microcarpa (A. Evans) A. Evans, Cladonia capitata f. pallida (Robbins) A. Evans, Cladonia capitata f. squamulosa (G. Merr.) A. Evans, Cladonia capitata f. stenophyllddes (G. Merr.) A. Evans, Cladonia leptophylla (Ach.) Flörke, Cladonia squamosa var. leptophylla (Ach.) Schaer., Lichen peziziformis With.]
[Capitularia pleurota Flörke, Cladonia coccifera subsp. pleurota (Flörke) M. Hauck, Cladonia coccifera var. pleurota (Flörke) Schaer., Cladonia cornucopioides var. grandis Kremp., Cladonia cornucopioides var. pleurota (Flörke) F. Wilson]
[Cladonia brevis (Sandst.) Sandst., Cladonia polycarpoides Nyl., Cladonia polycarpoides f. epiphylla (Robbins) J.W. Thomson, Cladonia polycarpoides f. pleurocarpa (Robbins) J.W. Thomson, Cladonia polycarpoides f. polycarpoides Nyl., Cladonia polycarpoides f. ramosa (Dix) J.W. Thomson, Cladonia polycarpoides f. squamulosa (Robbins) J.W. Thomson, Cladonia sobolescens Nyl. ex Vain., Cladonia subcariosa Nyl., Cladonia subcariosa f. epiphylla Szatala, Cladonia subcariosa f. pleurocarpa Robbins, Cladonia subcariosa f. ramosa Dix, Cladonia subcariosa f. sessills Szatala, Cladonia subcariosa f. squamulosa Robbins, Cladonia subcariosa f. subcariosa Nyl., Cladonia subclavulifera Asahina, Cladonia verticillata f. brevis Sandst.]
[Cladonia brevis (Sandst.) Sandst., Cladonia polycarpia G. Merr., Cladonia polycarpoides f. epiphylla (Robbins) J.W. Thomson, Cladonia polycarpoides f. pleurocarpa (Robbins) J.W. Thomson, Cladonia polycarpoides f. polycarpoides Nyl., Cladonia polycarpoides f. ramosa (Dix) J.W. Thomson, Cladonia polycarpoides f. squamulosa (Robbins) J.W. Thomson, Cladonia sobolescens Nyl. ex Vain., Cladonia subcariosa Nyl., Cladonia subcariosa f. epiphylla Szatala, Cladonia subcariosa f. pleurocarpa Robbins, Cladonia subcariosa f. ramosa Dix, Cladonia subcariosa f. sessills Szatala, Cladonia subcariosa f. squamulosa Robbins, Cladonia subcariosa f. subcariosa Nyl., Cladonia subclavulifera Asahina, Cladonia verticillata f. brevis Sandst.]
[Cenomyce pyxidata (L.) Ach., Cenomyce pyxidata var. delicata Desm., Cenomyce pyxidata var. pyxidata Ach., Cenomyce pyxidata var. tuberculosa (Hoffm.) Ach., Cladonia communis Schaer., Cladonia conchata Nyl., Cladonia neglecta (Flörke) Spreng., Lichen pyxidatus L.]
Blue Ridge, Piedmont; Schallert, Paul O. 2028 [NCU]
[Baeomyces anomaeus Ach., Cenomyce pityrea (Flörke) Ach., Cladonia adspersa Mont. & Bosch, Cladonia anomaea (Ach.) Ahti & P. James, Cladonia anomaea var. anomaea (Ach.) Ahti & P. James, Cladonia degenerans var. anomaea (Ach.) Cromb., Cladonia isignyi Delise, Cladonia lamarkii Nyl., Cladonia lamarkii f. isignyi (Delise) Nyl., Cladonia lamarkii f. lamarkii Nyl., Cladonia lepidula var. foliolosa Müll.Arg., Cladonia leucocephala Müll.Arg., Cladonia pityrea (Flörke) Fr., Cladonia pityrea f. cladomorpha Flörke, Cladonia pityrea f. dilacerata Anders, Cladonia pityrea f. hololepis Flörke, Cladonia pityrea f. macrocephala Asahina, Cladonia pityrea f. pityrea (Flörke) Fr., Cladonia pityrea f. scyphifera (Delise) Vain., Cladonia pityrea f. sorediosa Vain., Cladonia pityrea f. squamulifera Vain., Cladonia pityrea f. subacuta Vain., Cladonia pityrea f. subuliformis Vain., Cladonia pityrea subsp. gracilenta (Nyl.) Abbayes, Cladonia pityrea subsp. pityrea (Flörke) Fr., Cladonia pityrea subsp. polyphylla (Mont. & Bosch) Abbayes, Cladonia pityrea var. javanica (Hepp) Zahlbr., Cladonia pityrea var. junghuhniana (Mont. & Bosch) Zahlbr., Cladonia pityrea var. phyllopoda Vain., Cladonia pityrea var. pityrea (Flörke) Fr., Cladonia pityrea var. subareolata Vain., Cladonia squamosa var. pachypoda Müll.Arg., Lichen ramulosus With.]
edge of mixed mesic forest along powerline right-of-way; partly shaded; Substrate: decorticated log; Perlmutter, Gary B. 1126 [NCU], Perlmutter, Gary B. 4344 [NCU], Newman, Randy 2007-01-05 [NCU], Perlmutter, Gary B. 1965 [NCU]
[Cladina rangiferina (L.) Nyl., Cladina rangiferina f. crispata (Coem.) J.C. Wei & Y.M. Jiang, Cladina rangiferina f. humilis (Anders) J.C. Wei & Y.M. Jiang, Cladina rangiferina f. patula (Flot. ex Sandst.) J.C. Wei & Y.M. Jiang, Cladina rangiferina f. prolifera (Flot. ex Sandst.) J.C. Wei & Y.M. Jiang, Cladina rangiferina f. rangiferina (L.) Nyl., Cladina rangiferina subsp. abbayesii (Ahti) W.L. Culb., Cladina rangiferina subsp. grisea (Ahti) Ahti & M.J. Lai, Cladina rangiferina subsp. rangiferina (L.) Nyl., Cladina rangiferina var. crispatula Nyl., Cladina rangiferina var. rangiferina (L.) Nyl., Lichen rangiferinus L., Lichen rangiferinus var. alpestris L., Lichen rangiferinus var. rangiferinus L.]
[Cladonia calycantha f. simplex A. Evans, Cladonia calycantha var. exilior Abbayes, Cladonia rappii subsp. rappii, Cladonia rappii var. exilior (Abbayes) Ahti, Cladonia rappii var. rappii A. Evans]
source: Lendemer, J.C. & R. Yahr. 2004. A checklist of the lichens collected during the Tuckerman Workshop #12, Outer Banks, North Carolina, USA. Evansia 21(3): 118 - 136.
[Cladonia cornutoradiata var. nemoxyna (Ach.) Oxner, Cladonia fimbriata f. nemoxyna (Ach.) Leight., Cladonia fimbriata var. nemoxyna (Ach.) Coem., Cladonia nemoxyna (Ach.) Nyl., Cladonia nemoxyna f. nemoxyna (Ach.) Arnold, Cladonia nemoxyna var. nemoxyna (Ach.) Arnold]
Blue Ridge, source: Perry, J.D. & B.J. Moore. 1969. Preliminary check list of foliose and fruticose lichens in Buncombe County, North Carolina. Castanea 34: 146 - 157.
[Cladonia santensis var. santensis Tuck.]
source: Lendemer, J.C. & R. Yahr. 2004. A checklist of the lichens collected during the Tuckerman Workshop #12, Outer Banks, North Carolina, USA. Evansia 21(3): 118 - 136.
[Cladonia brevis (Sandst.) Sandst., Cladonia polycarpia G. Merr., Cladonia polycarpoides Nyl., Cladonia polycarpoides f. epiphylla (Robbins) J.W. Thomson, Cladonia polycarpoides f. pleurocarpa (Robbins) J.W. Thomson, Cladonia polycarpoides f. polycarpoides Nyl., Cladonia polycarpoides f. ramosa (Dix) J.W. Thomson, Cladonia polycarpoides f. squamulosa (Robbins) J.W. Thomson, Cladonia subcariosa Nyl., Cladonia subcariosa f. epiphylla Szatala, Cladonia subcariosa f. pleurocarpa Robbins, Cladonia subcariosa f. ramosa Dix, Cladonia subcariosa f. sessills Szatala, Cladonia subcariosa f. squamulosa Robbins, Cladonia subcariosa f. subcariosa Nyl., Cladonia subclavulifera Asahina, Cladonia verticillata f. brevis Sandst.]
Blue Ridge, Holotype (NY) from Transylvania County, source: Lendemer, J.C. and B.P. Hodkinson. 2009. The Wisdom of Fools: new molecular and morphological insights into the North American apodetiate species of Cladonia. Opuscula Philolichenum 7: 79-100.
[Cladina stygia (Fr.) Ahti, Cladonia rangiferina f. stygia Fr.]
source: Ahti, T. & S. Hyvonen, 1985: Cladina stygia, a common, overlooked species of reindeer lichen. - Annales Botanici Fennici 22: 223 - 229.
[Cladonia brevis (Sandst.) Sandst., Cladonia polycarpia G. Merr., Cladonia polycarpoides Nyl., Cladonia polycarpoides f. epiphylla (Robbins) J.W. Thomson, Cladonia polycarpoides f. pleurocarpa (Robbins) J.W. Thomson, Cladonia polycarpoides f. polycarpoides Nyl., Cladonia polycarpoides f. ramosa (Dix) J.W. Thomson, Cladonia polycarpoides f. squamulosa (Robbins) J.W. Thomson, Cladonia sobolescens Nyl. ex Vain., Cladonia subcariosa f. epiphylla Szatala, Cladonia subcariosa f. pleurocarpa Robbins, Cladonia subcariosa f. ramosa Dix, Cladonia subcariosa f. sessills Szatala, Cladonia subcariosa f. squamulosa Robbins, Cladonia subcariosa f. subcariosa Nyl., Cladonia subclavulifera Asahina, Cladonia verticillata f. brevis Sandst.]
[Cladina submitis (A. Evans) Hale & Culb.]
Blue Ridge, source: Dey, J.P. 1978. Fruticose and foliose lichens of the high-mountain areas of the southern Appalachians. The Bryologist 81(1): 1 - 93.
Coastal Plain, Holotype (US) from New Hanover County, source: Evans, A.W., 1947: A study of certain North American Cladoniae. - Bryologist 50, 1: 14 - 50.; Evans, Alexander W. 855 [NCU], Evans, Alexander W. 715 [NCU], Evans, Alexander W. 750 [NCU], Evans, Alexander W. 764 [NCU], more...
[Baeomyces symphycarpus Ach. nom. illegit. superfl., Capitularia symphycarpa Flörke, Capitularia symphycarpia Flörke [incorrect orthographic variant], Cladonia cylindrica f. symphycarpa (Flörke) M. Choisy, Cladonia floerkeana var. symphycarpa (Flörke) Vain., Cladonia symphocarpa (Flörke) Fr. [incorrect orthographic variant], Cladonia symphycarpa (Ehrh. ex Schrad.) Fr., Lichen symphycarpus Ehrh. nom. inval., Lichen symphycarpus Ach. nom. superfl., Pannaria microphylla f. symphycarpa (Flörke) Gyeln., Parmeliella microphylla f. symphycarpea (Flörke) Zahlbr. [incorrect orthographic variant]]
source: Lendemer, J.C. & R. Yahr. 2004. A checklist of the lichens collected during the Tuckerman Workshop #12, Outer Banks, North Carolina, USA. Evansia 21(3): 118 - 136.
Blue Ridge, source: Heiman, K. 1996. Macrolichens of the Blue Ridge Parkway in North Carolina. Evansia 13: 47 - 57.
[Baeomyces uncialis (L.) Ach., Cenomyce uncialis (L.) Ach., Cenomyce uncialis var. pseudoparecha Delise, Cenomyce uncialis var. uncialis (L.) Ach., Cladina uncialis (L.) Nyl., Cladonia biuncialis Hoffm., Cladonia pseudostellata Asahina, Cladonia stellata f. uncialis (L.) Rabenh., Cladonia uncialis f. biuncialis (Hoffm.) Schaer., Cladonia uncialis f. uncialis (L.) Weber ex F.H. Wigg., Cladonia uncialis subsp. biuncialis (Hoffm.) M. Choisy, Cladonia uncialis subsp. dicraea (Ach.) D. Hawksw., Cladonia uncialis subsp. uncialis (L.) Weber ex F.H. Wigg., Cladonia uncialis var. pseudoparecha (Delise) M. Choisy, Cladonia uncialis var. uncialis (L.) Weber ex F.H. Wigg., Lichen uncialis L.]
[Cladonia cervicornis subsp. verticillata (Hoffm.) Ahti, Cladonia cervicornis var. verticillata (Hoffm.) Flot., Cladonia pyxidata var. verticillata Hoffm.]
Blue Ridge, source: Lendemer, J.C. 2010. Lichens of eastern North America exsiccate, fascicle VIII, No.s 351-400. Opuscula Philolichenum 8: 121-129.
[Biatora fuscorubens Nyl., Biatora fuscorubens f. fuscorubens Nyl., Biatora fuscorubens f. picila Arnold, Biatora fuscorubens f. rufofusca Arnold, Biatora monticola (Ach.) Hepp, Lecidea fuscorubens (Nyl.) Nyl., Lecidea fuscorubens f. fuscorubens (Nyl.) Nyl., Lecidea fuscorubens f. fuscorubescens (Vain.) Vain., Lecidea fuscorubens f. nigrescens B. de Lesd., Lecidea fuscorubens var. fuscorubens (Nyl.) Nyl., Lecidea fuscorubens var. ochracea (Hepp) H. Olivier, Lecidea fuscorubens var. parasitica B. de Lesd., Lecidea monticola Schaer., Lecidea monticola f. alpestris (Arnold) Grummann, Lecidea monticola f. atrofusca (Müll. Arg.) Grummann, Lecidea monticola f. monticola Ach., Lecidea monticola f. nigrescens (B. de Lesd.) Grummann, Lecidea monticola f. ochracea (Hepp) Lettau, Lecidea monticola f. picila (Arnold) Grummann, Lecidea monticola f. rufofusca (Arnold) Grummann, Lecidea sympathetica Taylor ex Leight., Lecidella fuscorubens (Nyl.) Stein, Lecidella monticola (Ach.) Kremp., Lecidella ochracea Körb., Oolithinia ochracea (Körb.) M. Choisy & Werner, Protoblastenia fuscorubens (Nyl.) J. Steiner ex Räsänen, Protoblastenia monticola (Ach. ex Schaer.) J. Steiner, Protoblastenia ochracea (Körb.) Zahlbr.]
[Biatora griffithii (Sm.) Hepp, Biatora mixta Fr., Biatorina griffithii (Sm.) A. Massal., Biatorina mixta (Fr.) Hellb., Biatorina tricolor (With.) Stein, Bilimbia mixta (Fr.) A. Schneid., Bilimbia tricolor (With.) Branth & Rostr., Catillaria griffithii (Sm.) Malme, Catillaria griffithii f. areolata Oxner, Catillaria griffithii f. griffithii (Sm.) H. Magn., Catillaria griffithii f. insularis Erichsen, Catillaria griffithii f. marina (Ohlert) Erichsen, Catillaria griffithii var. griffithii (Sm.) H. Magn., Catillaria griffithii var. micula Erichsen, Catillaria griffithii var. viridescens Erichsen, Catillaria tricolor auct., Catillaria tricolor var. marina (Ohlert) Zahlbr., Catillaria tricolor var. tricolor (With.) Th. Fr., Lecanora griffithii, Lecidea griffithii (Sm.) Taylor, Lecidea mixta (Fr.) Sommerf., Lecidea tricolor (With.) Nyl., Lecidea tricolor var. marina Ohlert, Lichen griffithii Sm., Lichen tricolor With., Sporoblastia griffithii (Sm.) Trevis.]
Blue Ridge, source: Lendemer, J.C., R.C. Harris and E.A. Tripp. 2013. The lichens and allied fungi of Great Smoky Mountains National Park: an annotated checklist with comprehensive keys. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden Volume 104: 1-152.
[Circinaria erythroxyli (Spreng.) Fée, Coccocarpia aurantiaca (Hook. f. & Taylor) Mont. & Bosch, Coccocarpia aurantiaca var. aurantiaca (Hook. f. & Taylor) Mont. & Bosch, Coccocarpia aurantiaca var. furfuracea Müll.Arg., Coccocarpia ciliolata Mont., Coccocarpia cronia var. aurantiaca (Hook. f. & Taylor) Vain., Coccocarpia incisa Pers., Coccocarpia leucorrhiza Hampe, Coccocarpia parmelioides (Hook.) Tuck. ex M.A. Curtis, Coccocarpia pellita var. mesomorpha Müll.Arg., Coccocarpia pellita var. parmelioides (Hook. f.) Müll. Arg., Coccocarpia pellita var. semiincisa Müll.Arg., Lecidea erythroxyli Spreng., Lecidea parmelioides Hook. f., Pannaria aurantiaca (Hook. f. & Taylor) Schwend., Pannaria ciliolata (Mont.) Hue, Pannaria molybdaea var. incisa (Pers.) Tuck., Pannaria parmelioides (Hook. f.) Colmeiro, Pannaria parmelioides var. parmelioides (Hook. f.) Colmeiro, Pannaria parmelioides var. pyrrhichocarpa Hue, Solorina aurantiaca Hook. f. & Taylor]
Piedmont, Coastal Plain, source: Perlmutter, G.B. 2006. Lichen inventory of the North Carolina Piedmont. Castanea 71(4): 282-294.
[Coccocarpia cronia (Tuck.) Vain., Coccocarpia cronia f. cronia (Tuck.) Vain., Coccocarpia cronia f. palumbina (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Coccocarpia cronia var. camporum (Malme) Zahlbr., Coccocarpia cronia var. cronia (Tuck.) Vain., Coccocarpia cronia var. furfuracea (Müll. Arg.) Vain., Coccocarpia cronia var. granulosa (Müll. Arg.) Vain., Coccocarpia cronia var. incisa (Pers.) Zahlbr., Coccocarpia cronia var. isidiophylla (Müll. Arg.) Vain., Coccocarpia cronia var. isidiosa (Müll. Arg.) Vain., Coccocarpia cronia var. lividorufa (Meyen & Flot.) Zahlbr., Coccocarpia cronia var. prolificans (Malme) C.W. Dodge, Coccocarpia cronia var. subaurantiaca (Taylor) Vain., Coccocarpia pellita var. isidiophylla Müll.Arg., Coccocarpia pellita var. isidiosa Müll.Arg., Lecidea palmicola Spreng., Pannaria molybdaea var. cronia (Tuck.) Tuck., Parmelia cronia Tuck.]
[Biatora lutea (Dicks.) Hepp, Biatorina lutea (Dicks.) Körb., Biatorinopsis lutea (Dicks.) Müll. Arg., Dimerella lutea (Dickson) Trevisan, Dimerella lutea f. lutea (Dicks.) Trevis., Gyalecta lutea (Dicks.) Hornem., Lecidea lutea (Dicks.) Taylor, Lecidea lutea var. eximia Nyl., Lecidea lutea var. lutea (Dicks.) Taylor, Lichen luteus Dicks., Microphiale lutea (Dicks.) Zahlbr., Microphiale lutea f. foliicola Zahlbr., Microphiale lutea f. lutea (Dicks.) Zahlbr., Microphiale lutea f. stenospora Zahlbr., Microphiale lutea f. theae Räsänen, Secoliga lutea (Dicks.) Norman]
Piedmont, Coastal Plain, source: Perlmutter, G.B. & J.C. Lendemer. 2008. Contributions to the lichen biota of North Carolina: A preliminary checklist of the lichens and allied fungi at William B. Umstead State Park. Opuscula Philolichenum 5: 67-76.; James C. Lendemer 8414 [PH]
[Biatora pineti (Ach.) Fr., Biatora pineti f. pineti (Schrad.) Fr., Biatora pineti f. terrestris Rabenh., Biatorina diluta (Pers.) Th. Fr., Biatorina pineti (Ach.) A. Massal., Biatorinopsis diluta (Pers.) Müll.Arg., Bilimbia pineti (Ach.) Branth & Rostr., Dimerella diluta (Pers.) Trevis., Dimerella diluta f. diluta (Pers.) Trevis., Dimerella diluta f. terrestris (Rabenh.) Grummann, Dimerella diluta var. diluta (Pers.) Trevis., Dimerella diluta var. perminuta Malme, Dimerella pineti (Schrader ex Ach.) Vězda, Gyalecta diluta (Pers.) Blomb. & Forssell, Gyalecta pineti (Ach.) Tuck., Lecidea diluta (Pers.) Leight., Lecidea pineti Ach., Lecidea pineti f. foliicola Kremp., Lecidea pineti f. pineti Schrad., Microphiale diluta (Pers.) Zahlbr., Peziza diluta Pers., Peziza diluta var. cinnamomea Pers., Peziza diluta var. diluta Fr., Peziza diluta var. fungorum Alb. & Schwein., Peziza diluta var. rosella Pers., Secoliga diluta (Pers.) Arnold, Sporoblastia diluta (Pers.) Trevis.]
[Collema pycnocarpum Nyl., Enchylium conglomeratum (Hoffm.) Otálora, P.M. Jørg. & Wedin, Gabura conglomerata (Hoffm.) Kuntze, Lethagrium conglomeratum (Hoffm.) Rabenh., Synechoblastus conglomeratus (Hoffm.) Körb., Synechoblastus cyrtaspis (Tuck.) Fink]
[Collema rupestre (Sw.) Rabenh., Collema rupestre f. corticola Räsänen, Collema rupestre f. granulosum (Grognot) Zahlbr., Collema rupestre f. rupestre (Sw.) Rabenh., Collema rupestre var. rupestre (Sw.) Rabenh., Collema rupestre var. subfurvum (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Collemodiopsis flaccidum (Ach.) Hav., Eucollema flaccidum (Ach.) Horw., Gabura flaccida (Ach.) Kuntze, Lathagrium flaccidum (Ach.) Gray, Lathagrium rupestre (Sw.) A. Massal., Lathagrium rupestre f. granulosum (Grognot) Szatala, Lathagrium rupestre f. rupestre (Sw.) A. Massal., Lethagrium flaccidum (Ach.) Arnold, Lethagrium rupestre (Sw.) A. Massal., Lichen flaccidus Ach., Parmelia flaccida (Ach.) Ach., Parmelia flaccida var. flaccida (Ach.) Ach., Parmelia rupestris (Sw.) F. Desp., Parmelia rupestris var. flaccida (Ach.) Schaer., Synechoblastus flaccidus (Ach.) Körb., Synechoblastus flaccidus var. flaccidus (Ach.) Körb., Synechoblastus flaccidus var. laeve Müll.Arg., Synechoblastus flaccidus var. subfurvus Müll.Arg., Synechoblastus rupestris (Sw.) Trevis.]
Blue Ridge, source: Heiman, K. 1996. Macrolichens of the Blue Ridge Parkway in North Carolina. Evansia 13: 47 - 57.
[Collema furfuraceum var. furfuraceum Du Rietz, Collema furfuraceum var. luzonense (Räsänen) Degel., Collema nigrescens f. furfuraceum Schaer.]
Blue Ridge, source: Dey, J.P. 1978. Fruticose and foliose lichens of the high-mountain areas of the southern Appalachians. The Bryologist 81(1): 1 - 93.
[Collema nigrescens f. nigrescens (Huds.) DC., Collema nigrescens var. nigrescens (Huds.) DC., Collemodiopsis nigrescens (Huds.) B. de Lesd., Gabura nigrescens (Huds.) Kuntze, Lathagrium nigrescens (Huds.) Gray, Lethagrium nigrescens (Huds.) A. Massal., Lichen nigrescens Huds., Parmelia nigrescens (Huds.) Ach., Parmelia nigrescens var. caesia Clemente, Parmelia nigrescens var. nigrescens (Huds.) Ach., Synechoblastus nigrescens (Huds.) Trevis., Synechoblastus nigrescens f. furfuraceum Arnold, Synechoblastus nigrescens f. nigrescens (Huds.) Trevis., Synechoblastus nigrescens f. quinqueseptatum Kernst.]
Blue Ridge, source: McCune, B., J. Dey, J. Peck, K. Heiman and S. Will-Wolf. 1997. Regional gradients in lichen communities of the southeast United States. The Bryologist 100(2): 145-458.
[Collema pulcellum Ach., Leptogium pulcellum (Ach.) Nyl., Leptogium pulchellum (Ach.) Nyl., Parmelia pulcella (Ach.) Spreng., Parmelia pulchella (Ach.) Spreng., Parmelia pulchella var. pulchella (Ach.) Spreng.]
[Collema nigrescens var. leucopeplum Tuck., Collema pulcellum var. leucopeplum (Tuck.) Degel.]
[Collema pulcellum var. pulcellum Ach.]
[Collema nigrescens var. ryssoleum Tuck., Synechoblastus ryssoleus (Tuck.) Fink]
Blue Ridge, source: Lendemer, J.C., R.C. Harris and E.A. Tripp. 2013. The lichens and allied fungi of Great Smoky Mountains National Park: an annotated checklist with comprehensive keys. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden Volume 104: 1-152.
[Collema auriculatum var. ceranoides (Borrer) Nyl., Collema ceranoides Borrer, Collema crispum subsp. ceranoides (Borrer) Nyl. ex Cromb., Collema crispum var. cristatulum Nyl. ex Cromb., Collema pulposum (Bernh.) Ach., Collema pulposum f. compactum, Collema pulposum f. hydrocharum, Collema pulposum f. papulosum Schaer., Collema pulposum f. pulposum (Bernh.) Ach., Collema pulposum var. ceranoides (Borrer) Leight., Collema pulposum var. compactum (Ach.) Nyl., Collema pulposum var. confertum Harm., Collema pulposum var. corallinum A. Massal., Collema pulposum var. cristatum, Collema pulposum var. diffractoareolatum Schaer., Collema pulposum var. ligerinum Hy, Collema pulposum var. pulposulum (Nyl.) Cromb., Collema pulposum var. pulposum (Bernh.) Ach., Collema pulposum var. tenax (Sw.) Nyl., Collema pulposum var. uniseptatum Zahlbr., Collema pulposum var. vulgare Schaer., Collema tenax f. tenax (Sw.) Ach., Collema tenax var. ceranoides (Borrer) Degel., Collema tenax var. corallinum (A. Massal.) Degel., Collema tenax var. coronatum Körb., Collema tenax var. tenax (Sw.) Ach., Collema tenax var. vulgare (Schaer.) Degel., Enchylium tenax (Sw.) Gray, Eucollema ceranoides (Borrer) Horw., Eucollema ceranoides f. ceranoides (Borrer) Horw., Eucollema ceranoides f. cristatulum (Nyl. ex Cromb.) Horw., Leptogium palmatum f. corallinum (A. Massal.) Zahlbr.]
[Arthonia rubrocincta G. Merr. ex Grube & Lendemer]
Coastal scrub, source: Perlmutter, G.B./ Miranda-González, R./ Bungartz, F. 2023: Placement of Arthonia rubrocincta in Coniocarpon (lichenized Ascomycota: Arthoniaceae), with an extended range for the species in southeastern North America and the Caribbean. - Phytotaxa 589(3): 278-282.; Perlmutter, Gary B. 4307 [NCU], Perlmutter, Gary B. 4316 [NCU]
[Arthopyrenia cinchonae (Ach.) Müll. Arg., Arthopyrenia cinchonae var. cinchonae (Ach.) Müll. Arg., Arthopyrenia nieteriana Müll.Arg., Arthopyrenia planipes Müll.Arg., Didymella cinchonae (Ach.) Vain., Leiophloea cinchonae (Ach.) Riedl, Porina concamerata (Stirt.) Zahlbr., Spermatodium cinchonae (Ach.) Trevis., Verrucaria alboatra var. detergens Nyl., Verrucaria cinchonae Ach., Verrucaria cinchonae var. cinchonae Ach., Verrucaria cinchonae var. fumida Stizenb., Verrucaria concamerata Stirt., Verrucaria prostans Mont.]
mesic mixed hardwood / alluvial forest; shaded; Substrate: fallen Liriodendron tulipifera tree; J. C. Lendemer 39942 [NY], Perlmutter, Gary B. 4219 [NCU], Perlmutter, Gary B. 1945 [NCU], Perlmutter, Gary B. 4195 [NCU]
[Canoparmelia crozalsiana (B. de Lesd. ex Harm.) Elix & Hale, Parmelia crozalsiana B. de Lesd. ex Harm., Parmotrema crozalsianum (B. de Lesd. ex Harm.) D. Hawksw., Pseudoparmelia crozalsiana (B. de Lesd. ex Harm.) Hale]
Blue Ridge; listed as Canoparmelia crozalsiana, source: McCune, B., J. Dey, J. Peck, K. Heiman and S. Will-Wolf. 1997. Regional gradients in lichen communities of the southeast United States. The Bryologist 100(2): 145-458.; Perlmutter, Gary B. 3701 [NCU]
[Lecanactis chloroconia Tuck., Lecanactis premnea var. chloroconia (Tuck.) Tuck., Lecidea chloroconia (Tuck.) Tuck., Opegrapha chloroconia (Tuck.) Müll.Arg.]
[Lecanactis flava Vain.]
Piedmont, source: Lendemer, J.C., R.C. Harris and E.A. Tripp. 2013. The lichens and allied fungi of Great Smoky Mountains National Park: an annotated checklist with comprehensive keys. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden Volume 104: 1-152.
[Bilimbia premnea (Ach.) H. Olivier, Lecanactis plocina subsp. premnea (Ach.) Lettau, Lecanactis premnea (Ach.) Arnold, Lecanactis premnea f. premnea (Ach.) Arnold, Lecanactis premnea f. saxicola (Mudd) Leight., Lecanactis premnea f. teichogena (Nyl.) H. Olivier, Lecanactis premnea var. argillacea (Malbr.) H. Olivier, Lecanactis premnea var. melargyra Nyl., Lecanactis premnea var. plurilocularis (Nyl.) Riddle, Lecanactis premnea var. premnea (Ach.) Arnold, Lecanactis premnea var. saxicola (Leight.) H. Olivier, Lecidea premnea Ach., Lecidea premnea f. premnea Ach., Lecidea premnea f. teichogena Nyl., Lecidea premnea var. argillacea Malbr., Lecidea premnea var. plurilocularis Nyl., Lecidea premnea var. premnea Ach., Lecidea premnea var. saxicola Leight., Opegrapha premnea (Ach.) Müll.Arg., Patellaria premnea (Ach.) Duby, Schismatomma premneum (Ach.) Mudd, Schismatomma premneum var. premneum (Ach.) Mudd, Schismatomma premneum var. saxicola Mudd, Schismatomma premneum var. saxicolum Mudd]
[Lichen auratus (Ach.) Sm., Lobaria aurata (Ach.) Kuntze, Nephroma aurata (Ach.) Pers., Parmelia aurata (Ach.) Eschw., Parmosticta aurata (Ach.) Nyl., Pseudocyphellaria aurata (Ach.) Vain., Sticta aurata Mont., Sticta aurata var. abortiva Schaer., Sticta aurata var. angustata Mont., Sticta aurata var. aurata Ach., Sticta aurata var. isidiascens Zahlbr., Sticta aurata var. microphylla Müll.Arg., Sticta aurata var. pallens Nyl., Sticta aurata var. pallidoglaucescens C. Knight]
[Acolium inquinans (Sm.) A. Massal., Acolium tympanellum (Ach.) Gray, Calicium inquinans (Sm.) Schaer., Calicium tympanellum Ach., Cyphelium inquinans f. inquinans (Sm.) Trevis., Cyphelium tympanellum (Ach.) Ach., Lecidea tympanella (Ach.) Link, Lichen inquinans Sm., Trachylia inquinans (Sm.) Rabenh., Trachylia tympanella (Ach.) Fr.]
maritime forest; partly shady; Substrate: Ilex vomitoria cutting; Perlmutter, Gary B. 332 [NCU]
[Acolium tigillare (Ach.) Gray, Acolium tigillare var. prominula Nyl., Acolium tigillare var. tigillare (Ach.) Gray, Calicium tigillare (Ach.) Pers., Cyphelium tigillare f. tigillare (Ach.) Ach., Cyphelium tigillare subsp. tigillare (Ach.) Ach., Lecidea tigillaris (Ach.) Ach., Lichen tigillaris Ach., Patellaria tigillaris (Ach.) DC., Trachylia tigillaris (Ach.) Fr., Trachylia tigillaris var. notarisii (Tul.) Th. Fr., Trachylia tigillaris var. prominulum Nyl., Trachylia tigillaris var. tigillaris (Ach.) Fr.]
Blue Ridge, source: Lendemer, J.C., R.C. Harris and E.A. Tripp. 2013. The lichens and allied fungi of Great Smoky Mountains National Park: an annotated checklist with comprehensive keys. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden Volume 104: 1-152.; W. R. Buck 56223 [NY], LaGreca, Scott, A. 2596 [DUKE]
[Coenogonium ebeneum (Dillwyn) A.L. Sm., Coenogonium nigrum (Huds.) Ehrenb., Cystocoleus niger (Huds.) Har., Racodium ebeneum (Dillwyn) Fr.]
Blue Ridge, source: Lendemer, J.C. 2007. Contributions to the lichen flora of North Carolina: new and interesting records of lichens and lichenicolous fungi. Evansia 24(4): 98-102.
[Buellia glaucomarioides Willey ex Tuck., Sclerococcum glaucomarioides (Willey ex Tuck.) Ertz & Diederich]
[Buellia inquilina Tuck., Buelliella inquilina (Tuck.) Fink, Sclerococcum inquilinum (Tuck.) Ertz & Diederich]
Blue Ridge, source: Lendemer, J.C. & E.A. Tripp. 2008. Contributions to the lichen flora of North Carolina: a preliminary checklist of the lichens of Gorges State Park. The Bryologist 111(1): 57-67.; J. C. Lendemer 39951 [NY]
[Abrothallus lobariellus (Nyl.) Zopf, Buellia lobariella (Nyl.) Arnold, Buelliella nuttallii (Calk. & Nyl.) Fink, Lecidea lobariella Nyl., Lecidea nuttallii Calk. & Nyl., Sclerococcum lobariellum (Nyl.) Ertz & Diederich]
Blue Ridge, source: Lendemer, J.C., R.C. Harris and E.A. Tripp. 2013. The lichens and allied fungi of Great Smoky Mountains National Park: an annotated checklist with comprehensive keys. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden Volume 104: 1-152.
[Buellia pertusariicola Willey ex Tuck., Dactylospora pertusaricola (Willey ex Tuck.) Hafellner, Leciographa pertusariicola (Willey ex Tuck.) Fink, Sclerococcum pertusariicola (Willey ex Tuck.) Ertz & Diederich]
Piedmont, source: Perlmutter, G.B. & J.C. Lendemer. 2008. Contributions to the lichen biota of North Carolina: A preliminary checklist of the lichens and allied fungi at William B. Umstead State Park. Opuscula Philolichenum 5: 67-76.; James C. Lendemer 8361-A [PH]
[Leptogidium intricatulum (Nyl.) Nyl., Polychidium intricatulum (Nyl.) Henssen]
Blue Ridge, source: Lendemer, J.C. & E.A. Tripp. 2008. Contributions to the lichen flora of North Carolina: a preliminary checklist of the lichens of Gorges State Park. The Bryologist 111(1): 57-67.
[Cornicularia umhausensis Auersw., Dendriscocaulon bolacinum (Ach.) Nyl., Dendriscocaulon bolacinum var. bolacinum (Ach.) Nyl., Dendriscocaulon bolacinum var. dendroides (Nyl.) Vain., Homodium bolacinum (Ach.) Cromb., Leptogidium umhausense (Auersw.) Henssen, Leptogium bolacinum (Ach.) Nyl., Leptogium umhausense (Auersw.) Th. Fr., Lichen amplissimus Scop., Lichen glomuliferus Lightf., Lichen laciniatus Huds., Lichen laciniatus var. arboreus Weiss, Lichen laciniatus var. laciniatus Huds., Lobaria amplissima (Scop.) Forss., Lobaria amplissima var. amplissima (Scop.) Forssell, Lobaria glomulifera (Lightf.) Hoffm., Lobaria japonica f. exsecta (Nyl.) Yoshim., Lobaria laciniata (Huds.) Vain., Lobaria laciniata f. albida Gyeln., Lobaria laciniata f. laciniata (Huds.) Vain., Lobaria laciniata subsp. laciniata (Huds.) Vain., Lobaria quercizans f. exsecta (Nyl.) O.B. Blum, Lobarina laciniata (Huds.) Vain., Parmelia amplissima (Scop.) Schaer., Parmelia glomulifera (Lightf.) Ach., Parmelia lacera var. bolacina Ach., Peltidea glomulifera (Hoffm.) Link, Pertusaria glomulifera (Lightf.) Leight., Platysma glomuliferum (Lightf.) Frege, Polychidium umhausense (Auersw.) Henssen, Ricasolia amplissima (Scop.) De Not., Ricasolia glomulifera (Lightf.) Nyl., Ricasolia glomulifera var. exsecta Nyl., Ricasolia glomulifera var. glomulifera (Hoffm.) Nyl., Sticta amplissima (Scop.) Rabenh., Sticta glomulifera (Lightf.) Delise, Variolaria glomulifera Ach.]
Blue Ridge, source: Schmitt, C.K. & N.G. Slack. 1990. Host specificity of epiphytic lichens and bryophytes: a comparison of the Adirondack Mountains (New York) and the Southern Blue Ridge Mountains (North Carolina). The Bryologist 93(3): 257 - 274.
[Dermatocarpon decipiens f. intestiniforme (Körb.) Szatala, Dermatocarpon polyphyllum (Wulfen) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Dermatocarpon polyphyllum f. epruinosa Servít, Dermatocarpon polyphyllum f. laxum H. Magn., Dermatocarpon polyphyllum f. polyphyllum (Wulfen) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Dermatocarpon polyphyllum f. subconcavum (Vain.) Zahlbr., Endocarpon intestiniforme Körb.]
[Biatora lurida (Dill. ex With.) Fr., Dermatocarpon aquaticum (Weiss) Zahlbr., Dermatocarpon fluviatile (Weber) Th. Fr., Dermatocarpon fluviatile f. fluviatile (Weber) Th. Fr., Dermatocarpon fluviatile f. intestiniformis Vain., Dermatocarpon fluviatile f. subconcavum Vain., Dermatocarpon weberi (Ach.) W. Mann, Dermatocarpon weberi var. decipiens (A. Massal.) Vain., Dermatocarpon weberi var. weberi (Ach.) W. Mann, Endocarpon aquaticum (Weiss) Gaertn., G. Mey. & Scherb., Endocarpon fluviatile (Weber) DC., Endocarpon miniatum var. aquaticum (Hoffm.) Schaer., Entosthelia fluviatilis (Weber) Hav., Lepidoma luridum (Dill. ex With.) Gray, Lichen amphibius With., Lichen aquaticus Weiss, Lichen luridus Dill. ex With., Lichen weberi Ach., Lobaria aquatica (Weiss) Hoffm., Parmelia aquatica (Weiss) Ach., Parmelia fluviatilis (Weber) Ach., Patellaria lurida (Dill. ex With.) Wallr., Placodium luridum (Dill. ex With.) Link, Platisma aquaticum (Weiss) Hoffm., Schaereria lurida (Dill. ex With.) Gyeln., Verrucaria weberi Humb.]
[Capnia miniata (L.) A. St.-Hil., Dermatocarpon miniatum var. miniatum (L.) W. Mann, Endocarpon miniatum (L.) Gaertn., Endocarpon miniatum var. aetneum Tornab., Endocarpon miniatum var. cirsodes Ach., Endocarpon miniatum var. compactum Lamy, Endocarpon miniatum var. complicatissimum Nyl., Endocarpon miniatum var. imbricatum A. Massal., Endocarpon miniatum var. miniatum (L.) Gaertn., Endocarpon miniatum var. monstrosum Schaer., Endocarpon miniatum var. panniforme Lamy, Endocarpon miniatum var. papillosum Anzi, Endocarpon miniatum var. polyphyllum Wallr., Endocarpon miniatum var. umbilicatum Schaer., Entosthelia miniata (L.) Hue, Entosthelia miniata var. complicata (Lightf.) B. de Lesd., Entosthelia miniata var. miniata (L.) Hue, Entosthelia miniata var. panniformis (Lamy) B. de Lesd., Entosthelia miniata var. papillosa (Anzi) B. de Lesd., Epistictum miniatum (L.) Trevis., Lichen miniatus L., Lichen miniatus var. miniatus L., Rhodocarpon miniatum (L.) Lönnr., Umbilicaria miniata (L.) Baumg.]
[Dermatocarpon muehlenbergii (Ach.) Müll.Arg., Dermatocarpon muehlenbergii var. muehlenbergii (Ach.) Müll.Arg., Endocarpon muhlenbergii Ach.]
Blue Ridge, source: unpublished checklist provided by R.C. Harris (NY).
[Buellia catawbensis Willey, Dermatiscum catawbense (Willey) Nyl., Dermatiscum porcellanum Nyl., Dermiscellum catawbense (Willey) Hafellner & Poelt, Dermiscellum oulocheilum (Tuck.) Lendemer, Lecidea catawbensis (Willey) Nyl., Melanographa oulocheila (Tuck.) Müll. Arg., Melaspilea oulocheila (Tuck.) Zahlbr., Opegrapha oulocheila Tuck.]
Piedmont, Holotype as Opegrapha oulocheila (PH) from Salem, North Carolina, source: Lendemer, J.C. 2003. Dermiscellum oulochelia, forgotten priority and nomenclatural confusion in the Physciaceae (lichenized Ascomycetes). Bryologist 106(2): 311 - 313.; Piedmont Lichens 1 [NY], Schweinitz, L.D. von s.n. [PH]
[Buellia catawbensis Willey, Dermatiscum catawbense (Willey) Nyl., Dermatiscum porcellanum Nyl., Dermiscellum catawbense (Willey) Hafellner & Poelt, Dermiscellum oulocheila (Tuck.) Lendemer, Lecidea catawbensis (Willey) Nyl., Melanographa oulocheila (Tuck.) Müll. Arg., Melaspilea oulocheila (Tuck.) Zahlbr., Opegrapha oulocheila Tuck.]
[Arthonia lurida Ach. nom. rej., Arthonia lurida f. lurida Ach., Arthonia lurida var. lurida Ach., Arthonia lurida var. spadicea (Leight.) Nyl., Arthonia lurida var. vulgaris (Fr.) Almq., Arthonia spadicea Leighton, Arthonia spadicea var. convexula Erichsen, Arthonia spadicea var. spadicea Leight., Arthonia spadicea var. subspadicea (Nyl.) Redinger, Coniangium luridum (Ach.) Körb., Coniangium spadiceum (Leight.) Arnold, Coniangium spadiceum var. luridofuscum Arnold, Coniangium spadiceum var. spadiceum (Leight.) Arnold, Coniocarpon spadiceum (Leight.) Arnold, Opegrapha spadicea (Leight.) M. Choisy]
Blue Ridge, source: Schmitt, C.K. & N.G. Slack. 1990. Host specificity of epiphytic lichens and bryophytes: a comparison of the Adirondack Mountains (New York) and the Southern Blue Ridge Mountains (North Carolina). The Bryologist 93(3): 257 - 274.; W. R. Buck 1279 [US]
[Baeomyces absolutus Tuck., Baeomyces absolutus f. absolutus Tuck., Baeomyces absolutus f. subsessilis Tuck., Baeomyces absolutus var. absolutus Tuck., Baeomyces absolutus var. novae-zealandiae (C. Knight) Zahlbr., Baeomyces absolutus var. novae-zelandiae (C. Knight) Zahlbr., Baeomyces absolutus var. sessilis Müll.Arg., Baeomyces absolutus var. stipitatus (Mont.) Vain., Tubercularia absoluta (Tuck.) Kuntze]
Blue Ridge, source: Perry, J.D. & B.J. Moore. 1969. Preliminary check list of foliose and fruticose lichens in Buncombe County, North Carolina. Castanea 34: 146 - 157.
[Baeomyces roseus Pers., Baeomyces roseus f. roseus Pers., Baeomyces roseus var. roseus Pers., Dibaeis rosea (Pers.) Clem., Dibaeis roseus (Pers.) Clem., Lichen baeomyces L. f., Tubercularia baeomyces (L. f.) Baumg., Verrucaria baeomyces (L. f.) Willd.]
Hillside Seepage Bog; sunny; Substrate: soil of tip-up mound; Perlmutter, Gary B. 1428 [NCU], Haynes, M. SF-2 [NCU], Perlmutter, Gary B. 651 [NCU]
[Amphiloma oreinum (Ach.) Körb., Beltraminia oreina (Ach.) Trevis., Berengeria oreina (Ach.) Trevis., Lecanora oreina (Ach.) Ach., Lecanora straminea var. oreina Ach., Parmelia oreina (Ach.) Fr., Placodium oreinum (Ach.) Duby, Placothallia oreina (Ach.) Szatala, Psora oreina (Ach.) Nägeli, Rinodina hueana f. dispersa Lynge, Rinodina hueana f. microcarpoides C. Moreau & M. Moreau, Rinodina novomexicana B. de Lesd., Rinodina oreina H. Maln, Rinodina oreina f. dispersoareolata Servít & Nádv., Rinodina oreina f. oreina (Ach.) A. Massal., Rinodina oreina var. fimbriata (Schaer.) Jatta, Rinodina oreina var. griseoviridis H. Magn., Rinodina oreina var. oreina (Ach.) A. Massal., Rinodina suboreina B. de Lesd., Squamaria oreina (Ach.) Ach.]
low elevation rocky summit plant community; sunny; substrate: quartzite pinnacle wall, S face; Perlmutter, Gary B. 2922 [NCU], Perlmutter, Gary B. 596 [NCU], Schallert, Paul O. 1936-09-07 [NCU], Schallert, Paul O. s.n. [NCU]
[Acrorixis actinostoma (Ach.) Trevis., Aspicilia aperta (Schaer.) Motyka nom. inval., Diploschistes actinostomus f. apertus (Schaer.) Zahlbr., Lagerheimina actinostoma (Ach.) Kuntze, Lecanora actinostoma (Ach.) Nyl., Limboria actinostoma (Ach.) A. Massal., Limboria actinostoma var. actinostoma (Ach.) A. Massal., Urceolaria actinostoma Pers., Urceolaria scruposa var. actinostoma (Ach.) Grognot, Verrucaria actinostoma Ach.]
[Diploschistes bryophilus (Ehrh.) Zahlbr., Diploschistes bryophilus f. bryophilus (Ehrh. ex Ach.) Zahlbr., Diploschistes bryophilus f. iridatus (A. Massal.) Lettau, Diploschistes bryophilus f. pachylepis Lettau, Diploschistes bryophilus f. parasitica (Sommerf.) Servít, Diploschistes bryophilus var. bryophilus (Ehrh. ex Ach.) Zahlbr., Diploschistes bryophilus var. klementianus Gyeln., Diploschistes bryophilus var. praematricus Gyeln., Diploschistes bryophilus var. rossica Gyeln., Diploschistes bryophilus var. rossicus Gyeln., Diploschistes lichenicola (Mont.) Vain., Diploschistes muscorum subsp. muscorum, Diploschistes scruposus f. bryophilus (Ehrh.) Oxner, Diploschistes scruposus subsp. muscorum (Scop.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux, Diploschistes scruposus var. bryophilus (Ach.) Müll.Arg., Diploschistes scruposus var. parasiticus (Sommerf.) Zahlbr., Gyalecta bryophila (Ehrh.) Ach., Lecanora scruposa var. parasitica Sommerf., Lichen bryophilus Ehrh., Lichen muscorum Scop., Mellitiosporium lichenicola (Mont. & Fr.) Sacc., Patellaria muscorum (Scop.) Hoffm., Stictis lichenicola Mont. & Fr., Urceolaria bryophila (Ehrh.) Funck, Urceolaria lichenicola (Mont. & Fr.) A. Rich.]
Blue Ridge, Piedmont, source: Perlmutter, G.B. 2006. Lichen inventory of the North Carolina Piedmont. Castanea 71(4): 282-294.
[Diploschistes scruposa (Schreb.) Norman, Lagerheimina scruposa (Schreb.) Kuntze, Lecanora scruposa (Schreb.) Nyl., Lecanora scruposa f. geographica Flagey, Lecanora scruposa f. scruposa (Schreb.) Nyl., Lecanora scruposa var. gypsacea (Ach.) Sommerf., Lecanora scruposa var. scruposa (Schreb.) Nyl., Lichen scruposus Schreb., Lichen scuposus Schreb., Parmelia scruposa (Schreb.) Hepp, Patellaria scruposa (Schreb.) Hoffm., Psora scruposa (Schreb.) Hampe, Urceolaria scruposa (Schreb.) Ach., Urceolaria scruposa f. bryophila Ehrh., Urceolaria scruposa f. corticola Harm., Urceolaria scruposa f. granulosa Harm., Urceolaria scruposa f. isidioidea Schaer., Urceolaria scruposa f. leprosa Flot., Urceolaria scruposa f. minor Kremp., Urceolaria scruposa f. muscicola Anzi, Urceolaria scruposa f. ochracea Anzi, Urceolaria scruposa f. scruposa (Schreb.) Ach., Urceolaria scruposa f. subscruposa Nyl., Urceolaria scruposa var. albissima Ach., Urceolaria scruposa var. arenaria Schaer., Urceolaria scruposa var. bryophila (Ehrh.) Ach., Urceolaria scruposa var. cretacea Ach., Urceolaria scruposa var. iridata A. Massal., Urceolaria scruposa var. minor (Kremp.) Müll. Arg., Urceolaria scruposa var. parasitica Sommerf., Urceolaria scruposa var. plumbea Ach., Urceolaria scruposa var. punctata H. Olivier, Urceolaria scruposa var. scruposa (Schreb.) Ach., Urceolaria scruposa var. virella Clemente, Urceolaria scruposa var. vulgaris Schaer., Urceolariomyces scruposae Cif. & Tomas., Verrucaria scruposa (Schreb.) Hoffm.]
Blue Ridge, Piedmont / Fall Line, source: Lendemer, J.C., R.C. Harris and E.A. Tripp. 2013. The lichens and allied fungi of Great Smoky Mountains National Park: an annotated checklist with comprehensive keys. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden Volume 104: 1-152.; Perlmutter, Gary B. 2811 [NCU], Perlmutter, Gary B. 2578 [NCU]
[Dirina cyclosora Poelt & Nimis, Dirina massiliensis f. aponina (A. Massal.) Tehler, Dirina patronii Bagl., Dirinopsis massiliensis De Not., Lecanactis aponina (A. Massal.) Arnold, Lecanora repanda (Fr.) Fr., Pyrenotea aponina A. Massal., Secoliga repanda (Fr.) Norman, Urceolaria repanda (Fr.) Schaer.]
[Biatora praerimata (Nyl.) Walt. Watson, Bilimbia stenhammarii (Fr.) Boistel, Dirina immersa var. sorediata Müll.Arg., Dirina repanda f. stenhammarii (Fr.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux, Dirina stenhammarii (Fr.) Poelt & Follmann, Lecanactis praerimata (Nyl.) H. Olivier, Lecanactis stenhammarii (Fr.) Arnold, Lecanora stenhammarii (Körb.) Jatta, Lecidea margaritacea var. conspurcata, Lecidea stenhammarii Fr., Lichen conspurcatus Sm., Variolaria conspurcata (Sm.) Turner & Borrer, Zeora stenhammarii Körb.]
Blue Ridge, source: Lendemer, J.C. 2008. Contributions to the lichen flora of North Carolina: further new and interesting reports. Evansia 25(4): 97-101.
[Dirinaria aegialita var. aegialita (Afzel. ex Ach.) B.J. Moore, Dirinaria aegiliata (Afzel. ex Ach.) B.J. Moore, Hagenia aegialita (Afzel. ex Ach.) Bagl., Lecanora aegialita (Afzel. ex Ach.) Ach., Parmelia aegialita Afzel. ex Ach., Physcia aegialita (Afzel. ex Ach.) Nyl., Physcia aegialita f. aegialita (Afzel. ex Ach.) Nyl., Physcia aegialita f. coccinea Lynge, Physcia aegialita var. aegialita (Afzel. ex Ach.) Nyl., Physcia aegialita var. obliterata B. de Lesd., Physcia aegialita var. saxicola Räsänen, Physcia aspera var. alutacea H. Magn., Physcia aspera var. aspera H. Magn.]
source: Lendemer, J.C. & R. Yahr. 2004. A checklist of the lichens collected during the Tuckerman Workshop #12, Outer Banks, North Carolina, USA. Evansia 21(3): 118 - 136.; Eagan, R. 16076 [MIN], Culberson, William, L. 7948 [DUKE]
[Lecanora frostii (Tuck.) Tuck., Physcia frostii (Tuck.) Zahlbr., Pyxine frostii (Tuck.) Tuck., Squamaria frostii Tuck.]
Mafic glade w/ rock outcrops on steep S-facing slope; partly shaded; Substrate: rock; Perlmutter, Gary B. 1409 [NCU]
[Dimelaena picta (Sw.) Trevis., Hagenia picta (Sw.) Bagl., Lichen pictus Sw., Lobaria picta (Sw.) Raeusch., Parmelia picta (Sw.) Ach., Parmelia plumosa Taylor, Physcia picta (Sw.) Nyl., Physcia picta f. coccinea Müll.Arg., Physcia picta f. erythrocardia (Tuck.) J.W. Thomson, Physcia picta f. isidiophora Nyl., Physcia picta f. picta (Sw.) Nyl., Physcia picta var. coccinea Müll.Arg., Physcia picta var. endochroma H. Magn. & D.D. Awasthi, Physcia picta var. erythrocardia Tuck., Physcia picta var. flavicans Müll.Arg., Physcia picta var. picta (Sw.) Nyl., Physcia plumosa (Taylor) Nyl., Pyxine picta (Sw.) Tuck., Pyxine picta var. erythrocardia Tuck., Squamaria picta (Sw.) Ach.]
maritime forest; partly shady; Substrate: pine bark fragment; Perlmutter, Gary B. 324 [NCU], Perlmutter, Gary B. 4312 [NCU]
[Graphis afzelii Ach., Graphis afzelii f. afzelii Ach., Graphis afzelii f. atroalba (Kremp.) Redinger, Graphis afzelii var. afzelii Ach., Graphis afzelii var. nivea (Fée) Vain.]
maritime forest; partly shady; Substrate: Ilex opaca trunk; Perlmutter, Gary B. 709 [NCU]
[Lobaria ravenelii (Tuck.) Yoshim., Sticta ravenelii Tuck.]
[Paracarpidium Müll. Arg., Pyrenothamnia Tuck., Pyrenothamniomyces Cif. & Tomas., Rhodocarpon Lönnr., Willeya Müll. Arg.]
Piedmont/Fall Line; Perlmutter, Gary B. 2632 [NCU]
[Verrucaria pallidula Nyl.]
Coastal Plain, source: Lendemer, J.C. 2007. The occurrence of Endocarpon pallidulum and Endocarpon petrolepideum in eastern North America. Evansia 24(4): 103-107.; LaGreca, Scott A. 3044 [NCU], Perlmutter, Gary B. 4432a [NCU], Perlmutter, Gary B. 4456 [NCU], Perlmutter, Gary B. 4482 [NCU]
[Chiodecton anguinellum (Nyl.) Vain., Nyungwea anguinella (Nyl.) Aptroot, in Aptroot & Cáceres, Opegrapha anguinella (Nyl.) Ertz & Diederich, Stigmatidium anguinellum Nyl.]
maritime forest; partly shady; Substrate: Quercus virginiana trunk; Perlmutter, Gary B. 302 [NCU]
[Chiodecton hutchinsiae (Leight.) Zahlbr., Opegrapha hutchinsiae (Leight.) Körb., Platygramma hutchinsiae Leight., Stigmatidium hutchinsiae (Leight.) Nyl.]
Blue Ridge, source: Lendemer, J.C. 2007. Contributions to the lichen flora of North Carolina: new and interesting records of lichens and lichenicolous fungi. Evansia 24(4): 98-102.
[Pyrenula leucoplaca var. pluriloculata Fink]
Blue Ridge, state listed rare, source: Franklin Buchanan, M. and J.T. Finnegan. 2010. Natural Heritage Program list of rare plant species of North Carolina 2010. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Office of Natural Resource Planning and Conservation, NCDENR, Raleigh, NC.; James C. Lendemer 7826 [PH]
[Alectoria lanata (Neck.) Nyl., Alectoria lanata f. lanata (Neck.) Nyl., Alectoria lanata var. lanata (Neck.) Nyl., Alectoria lanata var. parmelioides Cromb., Bryopogon lanatus (L.) M. Sat, Bryopogon lanatus var. lanatus (L.) M. Sat, Cetraria lanata (Neck.) Schaer., Cornicularia lanata (Neck.) Ach., Cornicularia lanata var. lanata (Neck.) Ach., Ephebeia hispidula subsp. martindalei (Cromb. ex Nyl.) Cromb., Ephebeia martindalei Cromb. ex Nyl., Imbricaria lanata (Neck.) Arnold, Imbricaria lanata var. lanata (Neck.) Arnold, Lichen exilis Lightf., Lichen jubatus var. lanatus Neck., Lichen lanatus L., Parmelia lanata (L.) Wallr., Parmelia lanata var. lanata (L.) Wallr., Usnea lanata (Neck.) Hoffm.]
Piedmont, state listed rare, source: Franklin Buchanan, M. and J.T. Finnegan. 2010. Natural Heritage Program list of rare plant species of North Carolina 2010. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Office of Natural Resource Planning and Conservation, NCDENR, Raleigh, NC.; Culberson, William, L. 5358 [DUKE]
Blue Ridge, state listed rare, source: Franklin Buchanan, M. and J.T. Finnegan. 2010. Natural Heritage Program list of rare plant species of North Carolina 2010. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Office of Natural Resource Planning and Conservation, NCDENR, Raleigh, NC.; Schwartzman, Ed s.n. [NCU], Coker, William Chambers s.n. [NCU], Schallert, Paul O. s.n. [NCU]
source: Buck, W. R. & R. C. Harris. 2002. Epigloea (Epigloeaceae) new to North America. Evansia 19(3): 83 - 84.
[Lobaria mollissima Samp.]
Blue Ridge, source: Jørgensen, P.M. 2000. Survey of the lichen family Pannariaceae on the American continent, north of Mexico. The Bryologist 103(4): 670 - 704.
[Cetrariastrum catawbiense (Degel.) W.L. Culb. & C.F. Culb., Hypotrachyna catawbiensis (Degel.) Divakar, A. Crespo, Sipman, Elix & Lumbsch, Parmelia catawbiensis (Degel.) Hale & M. Wirth, Parmelia sorocheila var. catawbiensis Degel.]
Blue Ridge, source: McCune, B., J. Dey, J. Peck, K. Heiman and S. Will-Wolf. 1997. Regional gradients in lichen communities of the southeast United States. The Bryologist 100(2): 145-458.
[Bacidia bouteillei (Desm.) Hulting, Biatora bouteillei (Desm.) A. Massal., Biatorina bouteillei (Desm.) Bausch, Biatorina littorella (Nyl.) A.L. Sm., Bilimbia bouteillei (Desm.) Hulting, Catillaria bouteillei (Desm.) Zahlbr., Catillaria bouteillei f. abieticola (Nyl.) Vain., Catillaria bouteillei f. bouteillei (Desm.) Zahlbr., Catillaria bouteillei f. degenerans Vain., Catillaria bouteillei f. hohenbuehelii (Poetsch) Vain., Lecanora bouteillei (Desm.) Harm., Lecidea bouteillei (Desm.) Nyl., Lecidea littorella Nyl., Parmelia bouteillei Desm.]
Blue Ridge, Holotype (NY) from Haywood County, source: Harris, R.C. and J.C. Lendemer. 2009. The Fellhanera silicis group in eastern North America. Opuscula Philolichenum 6: 157-174.; J. C. Lendemer 8164 [NY]
Blue Ridge, Piedmont, Holotype (NY) from Haywood County, source: Harris, R.C. and J.C. Lendemer. 2009. The Fellhanera silicis group in eastern North America. Opuscula Philolichenum 6: 157-174.; J. C. Lendemer 8410 [NY], J. C. Lendemer 8077 [NY], Perlmutter, Gary B. 808 [NCU]
Blue Ridge, Piedmont, Holotype (NY) from Wake County, source: Harris, R.C. and J.C. Lendemer. 2009. The Fellhanera silicis group in eastern North America. Opuscula Philolichenum 6: 157-174.; J. C. Lendemer 8371 [NY], James C. Lendemer 8390 [WIS]
Blue Ridge, Holotype (NY) from Haywood County, source: Harris, R.C. and J.C. Lendemer. 2009. The Fellhanera silicis group in eastern North America. Opuscula Philolichenum 6: 157-174.; J. C. Lendemer 8169 [NY]
[Bacidia buxi Vězda & Vivant, Bacidia gorgonea Vězda & Poelt, Bacidia myriocarpa Erichsen, Bacidia myrtillicola Erichsen, Bacidia myrtillicola f. badia Erichsen, Bacidia myrtillicola f. myrtillicola Erichsen, Bacidia nitschkeana var. perpusilloides Erichsen, Fellhanera myrtillicola (Erichsen) Hafellner]
Blue Ridge, Reported from Jackson County, source: Lendemer, J.C. and K. Knudsen. 2011. Studies in lichens and lichenicolous fungi: 7. More notes on taxa from North America. Mycotaxon 115: 45-52
[Graphina columbina (Tuck.) M. Wirth & Hale, Graphina virginalis (Tuck.) Müll.Arg., Graphis columbina Tuck., Phaeographina columbina (Tuck.) Zahlbr.]
source: Lendemer, J.C. & R. Yahr. 2004. A checklist of the lichens collected during the Tuckerman Workshop #12, Outer Banks, North Carolina, USA. Evansia 21(3): 118 - 136.; J. C. Lendemer 39894 [NY]
[Graphina cypressi Müll.Arg., Graphina glaucoderma var. cypressi (Müll. Arg.) Fink]
Coastal Plain, source: Lendemer, J.C. 2007. Lichens of eastern North America exsiccate, Fascicle V, No.s 201-250. Opuscula Philolichenum 4: 69 – 80.
[Graphis dumastii (Fée) Spreng.]
source: Lendemer, J.C. & R. Yahr. 2004. A checklist of the lichens collected during the Tuckerman Workshop #12, Outer Banks, North Carolina, USA. Evansia 21(3): 118 - 136.
[Graphis illiterata R.C. Harris]
source: Lendemer, J.C. & R. Yahr. 2004. A checklist of the lichens collected during the Tuckerman Workshop #12, Outer Banks, North Carolina, USA. Evansia 21(3): 118 - 136.; J. C. Lendemer 39991 [NY]
[Graphina glaucoderma (Nyl.) Müll. Arg., Graphina glaucoderma var. glaucoderma (Nyl.) Müll. Arg., Graphina incrustans (Fée) Müll. Arg., Graphis glaucoderma Nyl., Graphis incrustans (Fée) Nyl., Phaeographina glaucoderma (Nyl.) Redinger, Phaeographina glaucoderma var. adpressa Redinger, Phaeographina glaucoderma var. glaucoderma (Nyl.) Redinger]
source: Lendemer, J.C. & R. Yahr. 2004. A checklist of the lichens collected during the Tuckerman Workshop #12, Outer Banks, North Carolina, USA. Evansia 21(3): 118 - 136.
[Graphis beaumontii Tuck., Graphis insidiosa (C. Knight & Mitten) Hook. f.]
maritime forest; shady; Substrate: fallenCarpinus carolinianus limb; Perlmutter, Gary B. 670 [NCU], James C. Lendemer 1014 [PH]
[Graphina cinerea Fink, Graphina olivaceobrunnea Fink, Graphina scolecitis (Tuck.) Fink, Graphis scolecitis Tuck.]
source: Lendemer, J.C. & R. Yahr. 2004. A checklist of the lichens collected during the Tuckerman Workshop #12, Outer Banks, North Carolina, USA. Evansia 21(3): 118 - 136.
[Graphina subnitidiula (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Graphina subnitidula (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Graphis subnitidula Nyl.]
Coastal Plain, source: Lendemer, J.C. & R. Yahr. 2004. A checklist of the lichens collected during the Tuckerman Workshop #12, Outer Banks, North Carolina, USA. Evansia 21(3): 118 - 136.
[Agonimia papillata (O.E. Erikss.) Diederich & Aptroot]
mesic mixed forest with gabbro outcrops near small stream tributary; deep shade; Substrate: vertical crevices between rocks of outcrop; Perlmutter, Gary B. 470 [NCU], Schwartzman, Ed 2007-02-27 [NCU], Perlmutter, Gary B. 1263 [NCU], Perlmutter, Gary B. 1878 [NCU], more...
[Flavoparmelia caperata f. caperata (L.) Hale, Flavoparmelia caperata f. sorediosa (Müll. Arg.) S.Y. Kondr., Flavoparmelia caperata var. caperata (L.) Hale, Imbricaria caperata (L.) DC., Lichen caperatus L., Lobaria caperata (L.) Hoffm., Parmelia caperata (L.) Ach., Parmelia caperata f. caperata (L.) Ach., Parmelia caperata f. saxicola Müll.Arg., Parmelia caperata f. sorediosa Müll.Arg., Parmelia caperata var. caperata (L.) Ach., Parmelia caperata var. sorediosa F. Wilson, Parmelia flavicans (Tuck.) Herre nom. illegit., Parmelia herreana Zahlbr., Parmelia negativa Gyeln., Parmelia perlata subsp. flavicans Tuck., Parmelia perlata var. flavicans Tuck., Parmotrema caperatum (L.) M. Choisy, Platisma caperatum (L.) Hoffm., Pseudoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale]
[Blastenia citrina (Hoffm.) B. de Lesd., Callopisma citrinum (Hoffm.) A. Massal., Caloplaca citrina (Hoffm.) Th. Fr., Caloplaca citrina f. citrina (Hoffm.) Th. Fr., Caloplaca citrina var. citrina (Hoffm.) Th. Fr., Caloplaca citrinella (Hoffm.) Hepp, Caloplaca incrustans var. citrina (Hoffm.) B. de Lesd., Lecanora citrina (Hoffm.) Ach., Lecidea citrina (Hoffm.) D. Dietr., Lichen citrinus (Hoffm.) Ach., Parmelia citrina (Hoffm.) Ach., Parmelia citrina var. citrina (Hoffm.) Ach., Placodium citrinum (Hoffm.) Hepp, Placodium citrinum f. citrinum (Hoffm.) Th. Fr., Placodium citrinum var. citrinum (Hoffm.) Th. Fr., Placodium citrinum var. vulcanica Räsänen, Pyrenodesmia citrina (Hoffm.) Trevis., Verrucaria citrina Hoffm.]
[Parmelia andreana Müll. Arg., Parmelia andreana f. andreana Müll. Arg., Parmelia andreana var. andreana Müll. Arg., Parmelia andreana var. isidiata Beschel, Parmelia flaventior Stirt., Parmelia flaventior var. flaventior Stirt., Parmelia flaventior var. isidiata (Beschel) Grummann, Parmelia kernstockii Lynge & Zahlbr., Punctelia flaventior (Stirt.) Krog]
Blue Ridge, source: McCune, B., J. Dey, J. Peck, K. Heiman & S. Will-Wolf. 1997. Regional gradients in lichen communities of the southeast United States. The Bryologist 100(2): 145 - 458.
Blue Ridge, source: Fryday, A.M. 2008. The genus Fuscidea (Fuscideaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) in North America. Lichenologist 40(4): 295 - 328.
Blue Ridge, source: Fryday, A.M. 2008. The genus Fuscidea (Fuscideaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) in North America. Lichenologist 40(4): 295 - 328.
[Fuscidea curvula (H. Magn.) Hertel, Lecidea curvula H. Magn., Lecidea recensa Stirt., Lecidea recensa f. recensa Stirt.]
Piedmont, source: Fryday, A.M. 2008. The genus Fuscidea (Fuscideaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) in North America. Lichenologist 40(4): 295 - 328.
[Biatora arcuatula Arnold, Fuscidea arcuatula (Arnold) V. Wirth & Vězda, Lecidea arcuatula (Arnold) Nyl., Lecidea arcuatula f. arcuatula (Arnold) Nyl., Lecidea recensa f. arcuatula (Nyl.) I.M. Lamb]
low elevation rocky summit plant community; sunny; Substrate: quartzite wall; Perlmutter, Gary B. 586 [NCU]
[Pannaria ahlneri P.M. Jørg.]
Blue Ridge, source: Jørgensen, P.M. 2000. Survey of the lichen family Pannariaceae on the American continent, north of Mexico. The Bryologist 103(4): 670-704.
[Pannaria leucosticta Tuck., Pannaria leucosticta var. isidiopsis Nyl., Pannaria leucosticta var. leucosticta Tuck., Pannularia leucosticta (Tuck.) Stizenb.]
Blue Ridge, source: Jørgensen, P.M. 2000. Survey of the lichen family Pannariaceae on the American continent, north of Mexico. The Bryologist 103(4): 670-704.
[Hypomyces geoglossi Ellis & Everh.]
Blue Ridge, source: Diederich et al. 2010. An enlarged concept of Llimoniella (lichenicolous Helotiales), with a revised key to the species and notes on related genera. The Lichenologist 42 (3): 253-269.
[Glyphis achariana Tuck., Glyphis confluens Zenker, Glyphis favulosa Ach.]
[Graphina cupulicarpa Redinger, Gymnotrema atratum (Fée) Nyl., Gyrostomum scyphuliferum (Ach.) Nyl., Gyrostomum scyphuliferum var. macrosporum B. de Lesd., Gyrostomum scyphuliferum var. scyphuliferum (Ach.) Nyl., Lecanactis obfirmata Nyl., Lecidea scyphulifera Ach., Phaeographina obfirmata (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Thelotrema atratum Fée]
G. americanus was first described from Mitchell Mill., source: Esslinger, T.L. 1975. A new North American species of the lichen genus Gomphillus. Mycotaxon. 1(3):189-192.; W. R. Buck 33450 [NY], W. R. Buck 48965 [NY], Perlmutter, Gary B. 3748 [NCU], Perlmutter, Gary B. 1915 [NCU], more...
[Baeomyces calycioides Delise ex Duby, Baeomyces microcephalus Taylor, Berengeria calicioides (Delise ex Duby) A. Massal., Gomphillus calycioides f. calycioides (Delise ex Duby) Nyl., Gomphillus calycioides f. microcephalus (Taylor) Nyl., Mycetodium calicioides (Delise ex Duby) A. Massal.]
Blue Ridge, source: Lücking, R., W.R. Buck and E. Rivas Plata. 2007. The lichen family Gomphillaceae (Ostropales) in eastern North America, with notes on hyphophore development in Gomphillus and Gyalideopsis. The Bryologist 110(4): 622-672.
[Aulacographa Leight., Ctesium Pers., Digraphis Clem., Diplographis Kremp. ex A. Massal., Graphidomyces E.A. Thomas ex Cif. & Tomas., Graphina Müll. Arg., Graphinomyces Cif. & Tomas., Oxystoma Eschw., Scaphis Eschw., Solenographa A. Massal., Stenographa Mudd, Thelographis Nyl.]
[Opegrapha desquamescens Fée]
maritime forest; partly shady; Substrate: Ilex opaca trunk; Perlmutter, Gary B. 711 [NCU]
[Allographa hossei (Vain.) Lücking & Kalb]
Piedmont, source: Perlmutter, G.B. and J.C. Lendemer. 2008. Contributions to the lichen flora of North Carolina: A preliminary checklist of the lichens and allied fungi at William B. Umstead State Park. Opuscula Philolichenum 5: 67-76.; J. C. Lendemer 8401 [NY]
source: Lendemer, J.C. & R. Yahr. 2004. A checklist of the lichens collected during the Tuckerman Workshop #12, Outer Banks, North Carolina, USA. Evansia 21(3): 118 - 136.
source: Lendemer, J.C. & R. Yahr. 2004. A checklist of the lichens collected during the Tuckerman Workshop #12, Outer Banks, North Carolina, USA. Evansia 21(3): 118 - 136.; James C. Lendemer 1628 [PH]
[Allographa lumbricina (Vain.) Lücking & Kalb]
maritime forest; partly shady; Substrate: trunk of Quercus virginiana; Newman, Randy 3 [NCU]
[Graphis leptoclada Müll.Arg.]
source: Lendemer, J.C. & R. Yahr. 2004. A checklist of the lichens collected during the Tuckerman Workshop #12, Outer Banks, North Carolina, USA. Evansia 21(3): 118 - 136.; J. C. Lendemer 1628 [NY], J. C. Lendemer 1320 [NY], James C. Lendemer 1320 [PH]
[Graphina anguina var. radiata (Leight.) B. de Lesd., Graphis abietina (Schaer.) Malbr., Graphis abietina f. abietina (Schaer.) Malbr., Graphis abietina f. horizontalis (Leight.) Szatala, Graphis cerasi (Pers.) Ach., Graphis diffracta Turner, Graphis diffracta f. diffracta Turner, Graphis diffracta f. minor Leight., Graphis diffracta var. diffracta Turner, Graphis diffracta var. flexuosa Leight., Graphis diffracta var. major Leight., Graphis diffracta var. minor (Leight.) Leight., Graphis diffracta var. radiata Leight., Graphis pulverulenta f. cerasi (Pers.) Szatala, Graphis pulverulenta f. radiata (Leight.) Szatala, Graphis scripta f. diffusa (Leight.) Leight., Graphis scripta f. eutypa (Ach.) Leight., Graphis scripta f. flexuosa (Leight.) Mudd, Graphis scripta f. horizontalis Leight., Graphis scripta f. major (Leight.) Mudd, Graphis scripta f. radiata (Leight.) Arnold, Graphis scripta f. recta Schaer., Graphis scripta var. abietina (Schaer.) Rabenh., Graphis scripta var. cerasi (Pers.) Ach., Graphis scripta var. diffracta (Turner ex Leight.) Mudd, Graphis scripta var. diffusa Leight., Graphis scripta var. eutypa (Ach.) Mudd, Graphis scripta var. fraxini (Pers.) Grummann, Graphis scripta var. horizontalis (Leight.) Arnold, Graphis scripta var. limitata (Pers.) Arnold, Graphis scripta var. minuta (Leight.) Mudd, Graphis scripta var. pulverulenta (Pers.) Ach., Graphis scripta var. recta (Humb.) Mudd, Graphis scripta var. serpentina (Ach.) G. Mey., Graphis scripta var. spathea (Ach.) Mudd, Graphis scripta var. stellata (Leight.) Mudd, Graphis scripta var. tremulans (Leight.) Mudd, Graphis scripta var. typographica (Willd.) Zahlbr., Graphis scripta var. varia (Leight.) Mudd, Graphis serpentina (Ach.) Ach., Graphis serpentina f. acerina (Arnold) Szatala, Graphis serpentina f. cretacea (Hazsl.) Szatala, Graphis serpentina f. juglandis (Garov.) Szatala, Graphis serpentina f. serpentina (Ach.) Ach., Graphis serpentina var. diffusa Leight., Graphis serpentina var. divaricata Leight., Graphis serpentina var. eutypa Ach., Graphis serpentina var. flexuosa Leight., Graphis serpentina var. horizontalis Leight., Graphis serpentina var. minuta Leight., Graphis serpentina var. radiata Leight., Graphis serpentina var. recta (Humb.) Leight., Graphis serpentina var. rugosa Ach., Graphis serpentina var. serpentina (Ach.) Ach., Graphis serpentina var. spathea Ach., Graphis serpentina var. stellata Leight., Graphis serpentina var. tremulans Leight., Graphis serpentina var. varia Leight., Graphis sophistica var. radiata Leight., Graphis spathea (Ach.) Röhl., Leproncus scriptus (L.) A. St.-Hil., Lichen cerasi (Pers.) Ach., Lichen scriptus L., Lichen scriptus var. pulicaris Lightf., Lichen scriptus var. scriptus L., Lichen serpentinus Ach., Opegrapha pulverulenta Pers., Opegrapha pulverulenta var. fraxinea Ach., Opegrapha pulverulenta var. fraxini Pers., Opegrapha pulverulenta var. microcarpa Ach., Opegrapha pulverulenta var. pulverulenta Pers., Opegrapha recta Humb., Opegrapha scripta (L.) Ach., Opegrapha scripta var. abietina Schaer., Opegrapha scripta var. scripta Mont., Opegrapha scripta var. stellaris Meyen, Opegrapha scripta var. subtilis Pers., Opegrapha serpentina (Ach.) Schrad., Sphaeria limitata Pers., Verrucaria scripta (L.) F.H. Wigg., Verrucaria typographica Willd.]
[Allographa striatula (Ach.) Lücking & Kalb, Graphis striatula var. sublaevis Nyl., Hysterium striatulum (Ach.) Fr., Opegrapha striatula Ach.]
Blue Ridge, Piedmont / Fall Line, Coastal Plain; Perlmutter, Gary B. 2333 [NCU]
[Fissurina subnitidula (Nyl.) Staiger, Graphina subnitidiula (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Graphina subnitidula (Nyl.) Zahlbr.]
[Graphis scripta subsp. tenella (Ach.) Nyl., Graphis scripta var. tenella (Ach.) Tuck., Opegrapha comma var. tenella (Ach.) Mont., Opegrapha tenella (Ach.) Mont.]
[Lecidea geoica (Wahlenb.) Nyl., Lichen geoicus (Wahlenb.) Wahlenb., Secoliga geoica (Wahlenb.) Körb., Secoligia geoica, Urceolaria geoica Wahlenb.]
Piedmont, source: Perlmutter, G.B. 2006. Lichen inventory of the North Carolina Piedmont. Castanea 71(4): 282-294.
Blue Ridge, source: Lendemer, J.C., R.C. Harris and E.A. Tripp. 2013. The lichens and allied fungi of Great Smoky Mountains National Park: an annotated checklist with comprehensive keys. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden Volume 104: 1-152.
Blue Ridge, source: Lücking, R., W.R. Buck and E. Rivas Plata. 2007. The lichen family Gomphillaceae (Ostropales) in eastern North America, with notes on hyphophore development in Gomphillus and Gyalideopsis. The Bryologist 110(4): 622-672.
Blue Ridge, Piedmont, Coastal Plain, source: Lücking, R., W.R. Buck and E. Rivas Plata. 2007. The lichen family Gomphillaceae (Ostropales) in eastern North America, with notes on hyphophore development in Gomphillus and Gyalideopsis. The Bryologist 110(4): 622-672.
Piedmont, Coastal Plain, source: Perlmutter, G.B. and J.C. Lendemer. 2008. Contributions to the lichen flora of North Carolina: A preliminary checklist of the lichens and allied fungi at William B. Umstead State Park. Opuscula Philolichenum 5: 67-76.; James C. Lendemer 8299 [PH]
Blue Ridge, source: Lendemer, J.C., R.C. Harris and E.A. Tripp. 2013. The lichens and allied fungi of Great Smoky Mountains National Park: an annotated checklist with comprehensive keys. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden Volume 104: 1-152.
[Biatora aurantiaca var. erythrella (Ach.) Mont., Blastenia flavovirescens (Wulfen) B. de Lesd., Callopisma aurantiacum var. flavovirescens (Wulfen) A. Massal., Callopisma aurantiacum var. inalpinum (Ach.) Arnold, Callopisma flavovirescens (Wulfen) A. Massal., Callopisma flavovirescens f. flavovirescens (Wulfen) A. Massal., Caloplaca aurantiaca var. erythrella (Ach.) Th. Fr., Caloplaca aurantiaca var. flavovirescens (Wulfen) Th. Fr., Caloplaca aurantiaca var. inalpina (Ach.) H. Magn., Caloplaca erythrella (Ach.) Kieff., Caloplaca flavorubescens subsp. flavovirescens (Wulfen) Clauzade & Cl. Roux, Caloplaca flavovirescens (Wulfen) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Caloplaca flavovirescens f. flavovirescens (Wulfen) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Caloplaca flavovirescens var. flavovirescens (Wulfen) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Caloplaca flavovirescens var. inalpina (Ach.) Zahlbr., Laundonia flavovirescens (Wulfen) S.Y. Kondr., Lőkös & Hur, Lecanora aurantiaca f. erythrella (Ach.) Nyl., Lecanora aurantiaca f. flavovirescens (Wulfen) Hoffm., Lecanora aurantiaca subsp. erythrella (Ach.) Nyl. ex Cromb., Lecanora aurantiaca var. erythrella (Ach.) Nyl., Lecanora aurantiaca var. inalpina (Ach.) Leight., Lecanora erythrella (Ach.) Ach., Lecanora erythrella var. erythrella (Ach.) Ach., Lecanora flavovirescens (Wulfen) Duby, Lecanora inalpina Ach., Lecanora salicina var. erythrella (Ach.) Sommerf., Lecidea aurantiaca var. flavovirescens (Wulfen) Schaer., Lecidea erythrella (Ach.) Schaer., Lecidea erythrella var. flavovirescens (Wulfen) Schaer., Lecidea flavovirescens (Wulfen) Fr., Lichen erythrellus Ach., Lichen flavovirescens Wulfen, Parmelia erythrella (Ach.) Ach., Patellaria flavovirescens (Wulfen) Hoffm., Placodium aurantiacum var. flavovirescens (Wulfen) Naeg. ex Hepp, Placodium aurantiacum var. inalpinum (Ach.) H. Magn., Placodium flavovirescens (Wulfen) Vain., Placodium flavovirescens var. flavovirescens (Wulfen) Vain., Rinodina erythrella (Ach.) Gray, Verrucaria flavovirescens (Wulfen) Hoffm., Zeora aurantiaca var. flavovirescens (Wulfen) Flot.]
Saxicolous on exposed surface of Hanging Rock, overlooking New Hope Creek, voucher not collected., source: https://auth1.dpr.ncparks.gov/ncbp_neho/edit_record.php?entry_order=6577; LaGreca, Scott A. 3060 [NCU], Perlmutter, Gary B. 4481a [NCU], Perlmutter, Gary B. 1688 [NCU], LaGreca, Scott A. 3056 [NCU], more...
[Glyphis scyphulifera (Ach.) Staiger, Graphina cupulicarpa Redinger, Gymnotrema atratum (Fée) Nyl., Gyrostomum scyphuliferum var. macrosporum B. de Lesd., Gyrostomum scyphuliferum var. scyphuliferum (Ach.) Nyl., Lecanactis obfirmata Nyl., Lecidea scyphulifera Ach., Phaeographina obfirmata (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Thelotrema atratum Fée]
Coastal Plain, source: Lendemer, J.C. & R. Yahr. 2004. A checklist of the lichens collected during the Tuckerman Workshop #12, Outer Banks, North Carolina, USA. Evansia 21(3): 118 - 136.
[Haematomma puniceum var. accolens (Stirt.) Zahlbr., Lecania punicea var. accolens (Stirt.) Müll. Arg., Lecanora punicea var. accolens Stirt.]
maritime forest; partly shady; Substrate: fallen branch; Perlmutter, Gary B. 299 [NCU]
Blue Ridge, source: J. C. Lendemer and E. A. Tripp 2008: Contributions to the lichen flora of North Carolina: a preliminary checklist of the lichens of Gorges State Park.; Culberson, William, L. 7981 [DUKE]
[Lecanora persoonii Fée]
Coastal Plain, source: Brodo, I.M., W.L. Culberson & C.F. Culberson. 2008. Haematomma (Lecanoraceae) of North and Central America, including the West Indies. The Bryologist 111(3): 363-423.; Perlmutter, Gary B. 4324 [NCU], Perlmutter, Gary B. 299 [NCU], Perlmutter, Gary B. 4325 [NCU], Culberson, William, L. 8031 [DUKE]
[Ramboldia subnexa (Stirt.) Kantvilas & Elix]
Blue Ridge, source: Lendemer, J.C., R.C. Harris and E.A. Tripp. 2013. The lichens and allied fungi of Great Smoky Mountains National Park: an annotated checklist with comprehensive keys. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden Volume 104: 1-152.
[Lecania pepegospora H. Magn.]
Blue Ridge, source: unpublished checklist provided by R.C. Harris (NY).
[Lecanora adglutinata Kremp., Pannaria adglutinata (Kremp.) Nyl.]
source: Lendemer, J.C. & R. Yahr. 2004. A checklist of the lichens collected during the Tuckerman Workshop #12, Outer Banks, North Carolina, USA. Evansia 21(3): 118 - 136.
[Collema lutosum Ach., Heppia brisbanensis F. Wilson, Pannaria lutosa (Ach.) Nyl.]
source: Culberson, W. L. 1961. A disposition of the nomenclature of lichens in Curtis's North Carolina Botany of 1867. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 77(2): 265 - 276.
[Chiodecton rubrocinctum (Ehrenb.) Nyl., Chiodecton sanguineum (Sw.) Vain., Chiodecton sanguineum f. sanguineum (Sw.) Vain., Chiodecton sanguineum var. lutescens Vain., Chiodecton sanguineum var. sanguineum (Sw.) Vain., Corticium rubrocinctum (Ehrenb.) Bres., Cryptothecia rubrocincta (Ehrenb.:Fr.) Thor, Herpothallon sanguineum (Sw.) Tobler, Herpothallon sanguineum f. sanguineum (Sw.) Tobler, Hypochnus rubrocinctus Ehrenb., Hypochnus sanguineus (Sw.) Kuntze, Thelephora sanguinea Sw.]
maritime forest; partly shady; Substrate: Quercus virginiana trunk; Perlmutter, Gary B. 696 [NCU], Culberson, William, L. 10082 [DUKE]
source: Printzen, C. & G. Kantvilas. 2004. Hertelidea, genus novum Stereocaulacearum (Ascomycetes lichenisati). Bibliotheca Lichenologica, Festschrift Hannes Hertel 88: 539 - 553.
[Anaptychia domingensis (Ach.) A. Massal., Anaptychia ravenelii (Tuck.) Zahlbr., Parmelia albicans Pers., Physcia albicans (Pers.) J.W. Thomson, Physcia albicans f. albicans (Pers.) J.W. Thomson, Polyblastidium albicans (Pers.) S.Y. Kondr., Lőkös & Hur]
[Anaptychia casarettiana A. Massal., Polyblastidium casarettianum (A. Massal.) Kalb]
Blue Ridge, source: Lendemer, J.C. 2009. A synopsis of the lichen genus Heterodermia (Physciaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) in eastern North America. Opuscula Philolichenum 6: 1-36.
[Anaptychia diademata (Taylor) Kurok., Anaptychia diademata f. angustata (Räsänen) Kurok., Anaptychia diademata f. brachyloba (Müll. Arg.) Kurok., Anaptychia diademata f. condensata (Kurok.) Kurok., Anaptychia diademata f. diademata (Taylor) Kurok., Anaptychia major (Nyl.) Vain., Anaptychia speciosa var. major (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Heterodermia major (Nyl.) Trevis., Parmelia diademata Taylor, Physcia major Nyl., Physcia speciosa var. major (Nyl.) Müll.Arg.]
Blue Ridge, Holotype (NY) from Graham County, source: Lendemer, J.C. 2009. A synopsis of the lichen genus Heterodermia (Physciaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) in eastern North America. Opuscula Philolichenum 6: 1-36.; R. C. Harris 41044 [NY]
[Anaptychia galactophylla (Tuck.) Trevis., Parmelia ciliaris var. galactophylla Tuck., Parmelia speciosa var. galactophylla (Tuck.) E. Michener, Physcia galactophylla (Tuck.) Nyl., Physcia latifolia var. galactophylla (Tuck.) Nyl., Physcia leucomelos var. galactophylla (Tuck.) Nyl., Physcia speciosa var. galactophylla (Tuck.) Tuck.]
Blue Ridge, source: Culberson, W.L. 1966. Chemistry and taxonomy of the lichen genera Heterodermia and Anaptychia in the Carolinas. The Bryologist 69(4): 472 - 487.
[Anaptychia granulifera (Ach.) A. Massal., Parmelia granulifera Ach., Physcia granulifera (Ach.) Tuck., Physcia hypoleuca var. granulifera (Ach.) Hue, Squamaria granulifera (Ach.) A. Massal.]
Blue Ridge, Piedmont, source: Lendemer, J.C. 2009. A synopsis of the lichen genus Heterodermia (Physciaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) in eastern North America. Opuscula Philolichenum 6: 1-36.; Perlmutter, Gary B. 4291 [NCU]
[Anaptychia dendritica var. japonica M. Sat, Anaptychia dendritica var. propagulifera Vain., Anaptychia hypoleuca var. sorediifera (Müll. Arg.) Vain., Anaptychia japonica (M. Satô) Kurok., Anaptychia japonica var. japonica (M. Satô) Kurok., Anaptychia japonica var. reagens Kurok., Anaptychia propagulifera (Vain.) Ozenda & Clauzade, Anaptychia speciosa f. sorediifera (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Anaptychia subheterochroa var. propagulifera (Vain.) Kurok., Heterodermia dendritica var. propagulifera (Vain.) Poelt, Heterodermia japonica var. japonica (M. Satô) Swinscow & Krog, Physcia speciosa f. sorediifera Müll.Arg., Polyblastidium japonicum (M. Satô) Kalb, Pseudophyscia speciosa var. hypoleuca]
[Polyblastidium neglectum (Lendemer, R.C. Harris & Tripp) Kalb]
Blue Ridge, source: Lendemer, J.C. 2009. A synopsis of the lichen genus Heterodermia (Physciaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) in eastern North America. Opuscula Philolichenum 6: 1-36.
[Anaptychia heterochroa Vain., Anaptychia hypoleuca var. colorata Zahlbr., Anaptychia obscurata (Nyl.) Vain., Anaptychia obscurata var. obscurata (Nyl.) Vain., Anaptychia obscurata var. serpens Vain., Anaptychia sorediifera (Müll. Arg.) Du Rietz & Lynge, Anaptychia sorediifera var. colorata (Zahlbr.) Nádv., Anaptychia sorediifera var. sorediifera (Müll. Arg.) Du Rietz & Lynge, Heppia obscuratula Nyl., Peltula obscuratula (Nyl.) Poelt ex Egea, Physcia obscurata Nyl.]
[Anaptychia pseudospeciosa Kurok., Anaptychia pseudospeciosa f. pseudospeciosa Kurok., Anaptychia pseudospeciosa f. tagawae Kurok., Anaptychia pseudospeciosa var. inactiva Kurok., Anaptychia pseudospeciosa var. pseudospeciosa Kurok.]
[Alectoria speciosa (Wulfen) A. Massal., Anaptychia pseudospeciosa var. tremulans (Müll. Arg.) Kurok., Anaptychia speciosa (Wulfen) A. Massal., Anaptychia speciosa f. brachyloba (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Anaptychia speciosa f. cinerascens (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Anaptychia speciosa f. cubana B. de Lesd., Anaptychia speciosa f. foliolosa C. Moreau & M. Moreau, Anaptychia speciosa f. isidiosa (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Anaptychia speciosa f. sorediosa (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Anaptychia speciosa f. spathulata Vain., Anaptychia speciosa f. speciosa (Wulfen) A. Massal., Anaptychia speciosa f. subimbricata (Räsänen) M. Satô, Anaptychia speciosa var. angustiloba (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Anaptychia speciosa var. esorediata Vain., Anaptychia speciosa var. lineariloba Müll.Arg., Anaptychia speciosa var. lobulifera Vain., Anaptychia speciosa var. mexicana B. de Lesd., Anaptychia speciosa var. microspora Kurok., Anaptychia speciosa var. speciosa (Wulfen) A. Massal., Anaptychia speciosa var. stellata Tuck., Borrera speciosa (Wulfen) Mudd, Dimelaena speciosa (Wulfen) Norman, Hagenia speciosa (Wulfen) De Not., Heterodermia pseudospeciosa var. tremulans (Müll. Arg.) Kurok., Imbricaria speciosa (Wulfen) DC., Lichen speciosus Wulfen, Lobaria speciosa (Wulfen) Hoffm., Parmelia speciosa (Wulfen) Ach., Parmelia speciosa f. fagorum Britzelm., Parmelia speciosa f. speciosa (Wulfen) Ach., Physcia speciosa (Wulfen) Nyl., Physcia speciosa f. brachyloba Müll.Arg., Physcia speciosa f. cinerascens Nyl., Physcia speciosa f. coralligera Müll.Arg., Physcia speciosa f. pulvinigera Müll.Arg., Physcia speciosa f. sorediosa Müll.Arg., Physcia speciosa f. speciosa (Wulfen) Nyl., Physcia speciosa f. subgranulosa Tuck., Physcia speciosa var. angustiloba Müll.Arg., Physcia speciosa var. dactyliza Nyl., Physcia speciosa var. speciosa (Wulfen) Nyl., Pseudophyscia speciosa (Wulfen) Müll. Arg., Pseudophyscia speciosa var. speciosa (Wulfen) Müll. Arg., Squamaria speciosa (Wulfen) Frege, Xanthoria speciosa (Wulfen) Horw., Xanthoria speciosa var. hypoleuca (Muhl.) Horw., Xanthoria speciosa var. speciosa (Wulfen) Horw.]
[Anaptychia squamulosa Degel.]
Blue Ridge, Type (Isotype in US) from Great Smoky Mountains National Park, source: Degelius, G.N. 1941. Contributions to the Lichen flora of North America II. The lichen flora of the Great Smoky Mountains. Arkiv för BotanikArk. Bot. 30A, Nr. 3: 1-80.; Hollinger, Jason P. 726 [NCU]
Blue Ridge, source: Lendemer, J.C. 2008. Contributions to the lichen flora of North Carolina: further new and interesting reports. Evansia 25(4): 97-101.
[Dothidea piggotii Berk. & Broome]
Blue Ridge, source: Lendemer, J.C., R.C. Harris and E.A. Tripp. 2013. The lichens and allied fungi of Great Smoky Mountains National Park: an annotated checklist with comprehensive keys. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden Volume 104: 1-152.
[Blastenia pollinii A. Massal., Callopisma ferrugineum var. pollinii (A. Massal.) Bagl., Callopisma pollinii (A. Massal.) Trevis., Caloplaca cinnamomea subsp. nigricans (Nyl.) Malme, Caloplaca phaeocarpella (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Caloplaca pollinii (A. Massal.) Jatta, Caloplaca pollinii var. major B. de Lesd., Caloplaca pollinii var. pollinii (A. Massal.) Jatta, Lecanora ferruginea var. nigricans Nyl., Lecanora phaeocarpella Nyl., Lecanora pollinii (A. Massal.) Massee, Lecidea phaeocarpella (Nyl.) Hue, Lecidea pollinii (A. Massal.) Hue, Physcia phaeocarpa (Nyl.) Hue, Placodium ferrugineum f. pollinii (A. Massal.) Tuck., Placodium ferrugineum subsp. pollinii (A. Massal.) Fink, Placodium ferrugineum var. pollinii (A. Massal.) Hepp, Placodium phaeocarpellum (Nyl.) A.L. Sm., Placodium pollinii (A. Massal.) A.L. Sm.]
[Physcia syncolla Tuck. ex Nyl., Physcia syncolla f. syncolla Tuck. ex Nyl., Physciopsis syncolla (Tuck. ex Nyl.) Poelt, Physciopsis syncolla var. syncolla (Tuck. ex Nyl.) Poelt]
[Biatora anthracophila (Nyl.) Hafellner, Biatora ostreata var. cladonioides Fr., Carbonicola anthracophila (Nyl.) Bendiksby & Timdal, Lecidea anthracophila Nyl., Psora anthracophila (Nyl.) Arnold]
Piedmont, source: Perlmutter, G.B. 2006. Lichen inventory of the North Carolina Piedmont. Castanea 71(4): 282-294.
[Biatora ostreata (Hoffm.) Fr., Lecanora ostreata (Hoffm.) Rabenh., Lecanora scalaris (Gray) A. Dietr., Lecidea ostreata Schaer., Lecidea ostreata f. hemisphaerica Servít, Lecidea ostreata f. minor Erichsen, Lecidea ostreata f. ostreata (Hoffm.) Schaer., Lecidea ostreata var. myrmecina (Ach.) Nyl., Lecidea ostreata var. ostreata (Hoffm.) Schaer., Lecidea ostreata var. vulgaris Th. Fr., Lecidea scalaris (Ach. ex Lilj.) Ach., Lecidea scalaris f. minor Erichsen, Lecidea scalaris f. perrevoluta Erichsen, Lecidea scalaris f. scalaris (Ach. ex Lilj.) Ach., Lecidea scalaris var. scalaris (Ach. ex Lilj.) Ach., Lepidoma scalare Gray, Lichen scalaris Ach. ex Lilj., Parmelia ostreata (Hoffm.) Fr., Patellaria ostreata (Hoffm.) Wallr., Placodium ostreatum (Hoffm.) Link, Psora ostreata Hoffm., Psora scalaris (Ach.) Hook., Psora scalaris var. myrmecina (Ach.) Räsänen, Psora scalaris var. scalaris (Ach. ex Lilj.) Hook., Psora scalaris var. vulgaris (Th. Fr.) Räsänen, Schaereria ostreata (Hoffm.) Gyeln.]
[Hypogymnia enteromorpha var. enteromorpha (Ach.) Nyl., Imbricaria enteromorpha (Ach.) Jatta, Imbricaria physodes f. enteromorpha (Ach.) Arnold, Öst. bot. Z. 49: 59 (1899), Lichen diatrypus * enteromorpha (Ach.) Lam., Menegazzia enteromorpha (Ach.) Gyeln., Parmelia enteromorpha Ach., Parmelia enteromorpha f. enteromorpha Ach., Parmelia enteromorpha var. enteromorpha Ach., Parmelia physodes f. enteromorpha (Ach.) Tuck., Parmelia physodes var. enteromorpha (Ach.) Tuck.]
Blue Ridge, source: Perry, J.D. & B.J. Moore. 1969. Preliminary check list of foliose and fruticose lichens in Buncombe County, North Carolina. Castanea 34: 146 - 157.
Blue Ridge, source: McCune, B./ Tønsberg, T./ Ahti, T. 2007: Hypogymnia incurvoides new to Scandinavia and the Appalachian Mountains. - Graphis Scripta 19(1): 10-12.
Blue Ridge, Piedmont, source: Perlmutter, G.B. 2006. Lichen inventory of the North Carolina Piedmont. Castanea 71(4): 282-294.; Schallert, Paul Otto 694 [NCU], Perlmutter, Gary B. 2750 [NCU]
[Ceratophyllum physodes (L.) M. Choisy, Ceratophyllum physodes var. fulvescens (Harm.) M. Choisy, Ceratophyllum physodes var. labrosa (Ach.) M. Choisy, Ceratophyllum physodes var. luxurians (Harm.) M. Choisy, Ceratophyllum physodes var. physodes (L.) M. Choisy, Ceratophyllum physodes var. platyphylla (Ach.) M. Choisy, Hypogymnia physodes f. labrosa (Ach.) Walt. Watson, Hypogymnia physodes f. platyphylla (Ach.) Rass., Hypogymnia physodes f. subtubulosa (Anders) Rass., Hypogymnia physodes f. vittatoides (Mereschk.) Räsänen, Hypogymnia physodes var. labrosa (Ach.) Parrique, Hypogymnia physodes var. platyphylla (Ach.) Walt. Watson, Imbricaria physodes (L.) DC., Imbricaria physodes f. physodes (L.) DC., Imbricaria physodes f. subcrustacea Flot., Lichen physodes L., Lobaria physodes (L.) Hoffm., Menegazzia physodes (L.) Navás, Parmelia ceratophylla var. physodes (L.) Schaer., Parmelia duplicata var. douglasicola Gyeln., Parmelia oregana Gyeln., Parmelia physodes Ach., Parmelia physodes f. cassidiformis Vereit., Parmelia physodes f. corallina Erichsen, Parmelia physodes f. deserti Hue, Parmelia physodes f. elegans Mereschk., Parmelia physodes f. epiphylla Savicz, Parmelia physodes f. euphysodes Maas Geest., Parmelia physodes f. foraminifera Wereit.{?}, Parmelia physodes f. formicata Gyeln., Parmelia physodes f. fuscescens Cromb. ex Gyeln., Parmelia physodes f. granulosa Harm., Parmelia physodes f. isidiosa Anders, Parmelia physodes f. lugubris (Pers.) F. Wilson, Parmelia physodes f. luxurians Harm., Parmelia physodes f. maculans H. Olivier, Parmelia physodes f. minor Hilitzer, Parmelia physodes f. neosorediosa Gyeln., Parmelia physodes f. papillosa Erichsen, Parmelia physodes f. physodes (L.) Ach., Parmelia physodes f. pinicola Gyeln., Parmelia physodes f. pseudofarinacea Anders, Parmelia physodes f. rugosa G. Merr., Parmelia physodes f. stigmatea Bitter, Parmelia physodes f. subcrustacea Flot., Parmelia physodes f. sublugubris Räsänen, Parmelia physodes f. subtubulosa Anders, Parmelia physodes f. vittatoides Mereschk., Parmelia physodes var. compacta Müll.Arg., Parmelia physodes var. fulvescens Harm., Parmelia physodes var. glaucoides Gyeln., Parmelia physodes var. labrosa Ach., Parmelia physodes var. leucina Müll.Arg., Parmelia physodes var. lugubris (Pers.) Nyl., Parmelia physodes var. mesotropa Müll.Arg., Parmelia physodes var. mundata (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Parmelia physodes var. physodes (L.) Ach., Parmelia physodes var. pinnata Anders, Parmelia physodes var. placorhodioides (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Parmelia physodes var. platyphylla Ach., Parmelia physodes var. prolificans Erichsen, Parmelia physodes var. pseudofarinacea (Anders) Erichsen, Parmelia physodes var. rugosa Müll.Arg., Parmelia physodes var. sublugubris Müll.Arg., Parmelia physodes var. tenuis Müll.Arg., Parmelia platyphylla (Ach.) Röhl., Parmelia vitatta, Physcia physodes (L.) Frege]
[Ceratophyllum tubulosum (Schaer.) M. Choisy, Cetraria tubulosa (Schaer.) B. de Lesd., Hypogymnia physodes var. tubulosa (Schaer.) Walt. Watson, Menegazzia tubulosa (Schaer.) Gyeln., Parmelia ceratophylla var. tubulosa Schaer., Parmelia physodes var. tubulosa Schaer., Parmelia tubulosa (Schaer.) Bitter, Parmelia tubulosa f. farinosa Hillmann, Parmelia tubulosa f. imbricata Erichsen, Parmelia tubulosa f. rugosorediosa Gyeln., Parmelia tubulosa f. rugososorediosa Gyeln., Parmelia tubulosa f. subtilis (Schulz-Korth) Erichsen, Parmelia tubulosa f. subvittata Frey, Parmelia tubulosa f. tubulosa (Schaer.) Bitter, Parmelia tubulosa f. verruciformis Harm., Parmelia tubulosa var. farinosa (Hillmann) Erichsen, Parmelia tubulosa var. inflata Erichsen, Parmelia tubulosa var. pergranulata Erichsen, Parmelia tubulosa var. subbitteriana Erichsen, Parmelia tubulosa var. subtilis Schulz-Korth, Parmelia tubulosa var. tubulosa (Schaer.) Bitter]
Blue Ridge, source: Dey, J.P. 1978. Fruticose and foliose lichens of the high-mountain areas of the southern Appalachians. The Bryologist 81(1): 1 - 93.
[Ceratophyllum vittatum (Ach.) M. Choisy, Hypogymnia vittata f. vittata (Ach.) Parrique, Imbricaria vittata (Ach.) Arnold, Menegazzia vittata (Ach.) Gyeln., Menegazzia vittata var. douglasicola Gyeln., Menegazzia vittata var. vittata (Ach.) Gyeln., Parmelia ceratophylla var. vittata (Ach.) Schaer., Parmelia physodes var. vittata Ach., Parmelia vittata (Ach.) Röhl., Parmelia vittata f. euvittata Maas Geest., Parmelia vittata f. latilobata Gyeln., Parmelia vittata f. stricta (Hillmann) Asahina, Parmelia vittata f. vittata (Ach.) Röhl., Parmelia vittata var. alpestris Zahlbr., Parmelia vittata var. alpina Gyeln., Parmelia vittata var. chalybaea J. Steiner, Parmelia vittata var. collina Gyeln. & Fóriss, Parmelia vittata var. douglasicola (Gyeln.) Zahlbr., Parmelia vittata var. hypotrypanea Nyl., Parmelia vittata var. radiata Gyeln., Parmelia vittata var. subarticulata J.D. Zhao, L.W. Hsu & Z.M. Sun, Parmelia vittata var. vittata (Ach.) Röhl.]
Blue Ridge, source: Dey, J.P. 1978. Fruticose and foliose lichens of the high-mountain areas of the southern Appalachians. The Bryologist 81(1): 1 - 93.
[Parmelia afrorevoluta Krog & Swinscow, Parmelinopsis afrorevoluta (Krog & Swinscow) Elix & Hale]
Blue Ridge, source: Lendemer, J.C. & E.A. Tripp. 2008. Contributions to the lichen flora of North Carolina: a preliminary checklist of the lichens of Gorges State Park. The Bryologist 111(1): 57-67.
[Parmelia croceopustulata Kurok.]
low elevation rocky summit plant community; sunny; Substrate: quartzite boulder; Perlmutter, Gary B. 382 [NCU], Hollinger, Jason P. 732 [NCU], Perlmutter, Gary B. 595 [NCU]
[Parmelia densirhizinata Kurok.]
Blue Ridge, source: Dey, J.P. 1978. Fruticose and foliose lichens of the high-mountain areas of the southern Appalachians. The Bryologist 81(1): 1 - 93.
[Parmelia dentella Hale & Kurok., Parmelia laevigata var. ceratina Müll. Arg.]
Blue Ridge, source: Dey, J.P. 1978. Fruticose and foliose lichens of the high-mountain areas of the southern Appalachians. The Bryologist 81(1): 1 - 93.
[Hypotrachyna subsplendens Kurok. & K.H. Moon, Parmelia gondylophora Hale]
Blue Ridge, source: McCune, B., J. Dey, J. Peck, K. Heiman and S. Will-Wolf. 1997. Regional gradients in lichen communities of the southeast United States. The Bryologist 100(2): 145-458.
[Parmelia dissecta Nyl., Parmelia horrescens Taylor, Parmelia laevigata f. dissecta (Nyl.) H. Olivier, Parmelia laevigata subsp. dissecta (Nyl.) Nyl., Parmelia saxatilis f. horrescens (Taylor) Stizenb., Parmelina dissecta (Nyl.) Hale, Parmelina horrescens (Taylor) Hale, Parmelinopsis horrescens (Taylor) Elix & Hale, Usnea horrescens (Taylor) Motyka]
[Parmelia imbricatula Zahlbr., Parmelia lobulifera Degel., Parmelia lobulifera var. luteoreagens Degel.]
Blue Ridge, source: Heiman, K. 1996. Macrolichens of the Blue Ridge Parkway in North Carolina. Evansia 13: 47 - 57.
[Imbricaria laevigata (Sm.) Arnold, Lichen laevigatus Sm., Parmelia boliviana var. cephalota Zahlbr., Parmelia laevigata (Sm.) Ach., Parmelia laevigata f. furfuracea Müll.Arg., Parmelia laevigata f. laevigata (Sm.) Ach., Parmelia laevigata f. luteoreagens Degel., Parmelia laevigata f. roseoreagens Degel., Parmelia laevigata f. sorediata Zahlbr., Parmelia laevigata subsp. extremi-orientalis Asahina, Parmelia laevigata subsp. laevigata (Sm.) Ach., Parmelia laevigata var. laevigata (Sm.) Ach., Parmelia laevigata var. obscuratella Müll.Arg., Parmelia laevigata var. tropica Zahlbr., Parmelia laevigata var. xanthomyela (Nyl.) Boistel, Parmotrema laevigatum (Sm.) M. Choisy]
Blue Ridge, source: Heiman, K. 1996. Macrolichens of the Blue Ridge Parkway in North Carolina. Evansia 13: 47 - 57.
[Parmelia hubrichtii E.C. Berry, Parmelia minarum Vain., Parmelina minarum (Vain.) Skorepa, Parmelinopsis minarum (Vain.) Elix & Hale]
[Parmelia oostingii J.P. Dey]
Blue Ridge, Holotype as Parmelia oostingii (DUKE) from Yancey County, source: Dey, J.P. 1974. New and little known species of Parmelia (lichens) in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Castanea 39: 360-369.
Piedmont, Coastal Plain, source: Lendemer, J.C./ Allen, J.L. 2019: Hypotrachyna oprah (Parmeliaceae, Lichenized Ascomycota), a new foliose lichen with lichexanthone from southeastern North America. Castanea 84(1): 24-32.
[Hypotrachyna formosana (Zahlbr.) Hale, Parmelia formosana Zahlbr., Parmelia osseoalba Vain.]
Blue Ridge, Piedmont, source: Lendemer, J.C., R.C. Harris and E.A. Tripp. 2013. The lichens and allied fungi of Great Smoky Mountains National Park: an annotated checklist with comprehensive keys. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden Volume 104: 1-152.; Perlmutter, Gary B. 261 [NCU], Perlmutter, Gary B. 784 [NCU], Theodore L. Esslinger 3124 [hb. Esslinger], Theodore L. Esslinger 3124 [ID]
[Hypotrachyna rachista (Hale) Hale, Parmelia lobulifera var. sanguineoreagens Degel., Parmelia prolongata Kurok., Parmelia rachista Hale]
Blue Ridge, source: Heiman, K. 1996. Macrolichens of the Blue Ridge Parkway in North Carolina. Evansia 13: 47 - 57.
[Parmelia anaptychoides Kurok., Parmelia pseudosinuosa Asahina]
Blue Ridge, source: Lendemer, J.C. & E.A. Tripp. 2008. Contributions to the lichen flora of North Carolina: a preliminary checklist of the lichens of Gorges State Park. The Bryologist 111(1): 57-67.
[Imbricaria revoluta (Flörke) Flot., Imbricaria sinuosa f. concentrica Arnold, Parmelia forsteri Leight., Parmelia laevigata var. forsteri (Leight.) Leight., Parmelia quercina var. erratica (Linds.) Hillmann, Parmelia revoluta Flörke, Parmelia revoluta f. foliolifera Erichsen, Parmelia revoluta f. nuda Müll.Arg., Parmelia revoluta f. revoluta Flörke, Parmelia revoluta var. britannica (D. Hawksw. & P. James) V. Wirth, Parmelia revoluta var. concentrica (Arnold) Cromb., Parmelia revoluta var. erratica (Linds.) Zahlbr., Parmelia revoluta var. granulata Harm., Parmelia revoluta var. minor Harm., Parmelia revoluta var. revoluta Flörke, Parmelia sinuosa var. erratica Linds., Parmelia sinuosa var. excentrica Mudd]
[Parmelia rockii Zahlbr.]
Blue Ridge, source: McCune, B., J. Dey, J. Peck, K. Heiman and S. Will-Wolf. 1997. Regional gradients in lichen communities of the southeast United States. The Bryologist 100(2): 145-458.
Blue Ridge, Piedmont, source: Perlmutter, G.B. 2006. Lichen inventory of the North Carolina Piedmont. Castanea 71(4): 282-294.
[Imbricaria sinuosa (Sm.) Körb., Imbricaria sinuosa f. sinuosa (Sm.) Körb., Imbricaria sinuosa var. angustifolia Anzi, Imbricaria sinuosa var. latifolia Anzi, Imbricaria sinuosa var. sinuosa (Sm.) Körb., Lichen sinuosus Sm., Parmelia sinuosa (Sm.) Ach., Parmelia sinuosa var. hypothrix Nyl., Parmelia sinuosa var. sinuosa (Sm.) Ach.]
Blue Ridge, source: Dey, J.P. 1978. Fruticose and foliose lichens of the high-mountain areas of the southern Appalachians. The Bryologist 81(1): 1 - 93.; Dey, Jonathan, P. 6082 [DUKE]
[Parmelia spumosa Asahina, Parmelina spumosa (Asahina) Hale, Parmelinopsis spumosa (Asah.) Elix & Hale]
Coastal Plain, source: Coastal Plain, source: Lendemer, J.C. & R. Yahr. 2004. A checklist of the lichens collected during the Tuckerman Workshop #12, Outer Banks, North Carolina, USA. Evansia 21(3): 118 - 136.
[Parmelia revoluta f. rugosa (Taylor) Hillmann, Parmelia revoluta var. rugosa Cromb., Parmelia rugosa Taylor, Parmelia rugosa var. lundensis Fr., Parmelia rugosa var. rugosa Taylor, Parmelia taylorensis M.E. Mitch.]
Blue Ridge, source: Groner, U. & M. Dietrich. 1996. Hypotrachyna taylorensis, an European species in the New World. The Bryologist 99(4): 457 - 459.
[Parmelia thysanota Kurok.]
source: Dey, J.P. 1978. Fruticose and foliose lichens of the high-mountain areas of the southern Appalachians. The Bryologist 81(1): 1 - 93.
[Parmelia virginica Hale]
Blue Ridge, source: Heiman, K. 1996. Macrolichens of the Blue Ridge Parkway in North Carolina. Evansia 13: 47 - 57.; Erin Tripp 5401 [COLO]
[Baeomyces aeruginosa (Scop.) DC., Baeomyces aeruginosus (Scop.) DC., Baeomyces icmadophilus (L. f.) Bory, Biatora aeruginosa (Scop.) Hepp, Biatora icmadophila (L. f.) Fr., Biatora icmadophila var. icmadophila (L. f.) Fr., Biatora icmadophila var. stipitata Mont., Biatorina icmadophila (L. f.) Flagey, Icmadophila aeruginosa (Scop.) Trevis., Icmadophila aeruginosa f. aeruginosa (Scop.) Trevis., Icmadophila aeruginosa f. muscicola Britzelm., Icmadophila aeruginosa var. aeruginosa (Scop.) Trevis., Icmadophila aeruginosa var. americana Räsänen, Icmadophila ericetorum var. stipitata B. de Lesd., Lecania aeruginosa (Scop.) Stizenb., Lecidea icmadophila (L. f.) Ach., Lichen aeruginosus Scop., Lichen ericetorum L., Lichen ericetorum var. ericetorum Retz., Lichen icmadophila L. f., Patellaria aeruginosa (Scop.) Spreng., Patellaria icmadophila (L. f.) Müll. Arg., Tubercularia icmadophila (L. f.) Kuntze, Tupia aeruginosa (Scop.) L. Marchand, Verrucaria icmadophila (L. f.) Willd., Zeora icmadophila (L. f.) Flot.]
[Cetraria aleurites (Ach.) Th. Fr., Imbricaria aleurites (Ach.) DC., Imshaugia aleurites f. vulnerata (Hillmann) S.Y. Kondr., Lichen aleurites Ach., Lobaria pallescens Hoffm., Parmelia aleurites (Ach.) Ach., Parmelia aleurites var. aleurites Nyl., Parmelia aleurites var. diffusa (Weber) Ach., Parmeliopsis aleurites (Ach.) Nyl., Parmeliopsis aleurites f. aleurites (Ach.) Nyl., Parmeliopsis aleurites f. diffusa (Weber) Grummann, Parmeliopsis aleurites f. eualbescens Maas Geest., Parmeliopsis aleurites f. obsessa (Ach.) Gyeln., Parmeliopsis aleurites f. pityreiformis (Hillmann) Gyeln., Parmeliopsis aleurites f. vulnerata (Hillmann) Gyeln., Parmeliopsis aleurites var. albescens (Wahlenb.) Maas Geest., Parmeliopsis aleurites var. albidula (Gyeln.) Gyeln., Parmeliopsis aleurites var. aleurites (Ach.) Nyl., Parmeliopsis aleurites var. pityreiformis (Hillmann) Grummann, Parmeliopsis aleurites var. roseola (Gyeln.) Gyeln., Parmeliopsis aleurites var. vulnerata (Hillmann) Maas Geest., Parmeliopsis pallescens (Hoffm.) Hillmann, Parmeliopsis pallescens f. angustifolia (Hillmann) Gyeln., Parmeliopsis pallescens f. diffusa (Weber) Hillmann, Parmeliopsis pallescens f. pallescens (Hoffm.) Hillmann, Parmeliopsis pallescens f. subalpina (Räsänen) Zahlbr., Parmeliopsis pallescens f. vulnerata (Hillmann) Rass., Parmeliopsis pallescens var. albosorediata Gyeln., Parmeliopsis pallescens var. angustata Gyeln., Parmeliopsis pallescens var. angustifolia (Hillmann) Zahlbr., Parmeliopsis pallescens var. fuscisorediata Gyeln., Parmeliopsis pallescens var. pallescens (Hoffm.) Hillmann, Parmeliopsis pallescens var. pityreiformis Hillmann, Parmeliopsis pallescens var. vulnerata Hillmann, Squamaria aleurites (Ach.) Nyl.]
[Parmelia placorodia Ach., Parmeliopsis placorodia (Ach.) Nyl.]
Blue Ridge, Piedmont, source: Perlmutter, G.B. 2006. Lichen inventory of the North Carolina Piedmont. Castanea 71(4): 282-294.
[Acarospora deplanans (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Aspicilia lacustris (With.) Th. Fr., Aspicilia lacustris f. concolor (Anzi) Oxner, Aspicilia lacustris f. lacustris (With.) Th. Fr., Hymenelia lacustris (With.) M. Choisy, Lecanora cyrtaspis, Lecanora deplanans Nyl., Lecanora fulvomellea A.L. Sm., Lecanora gibbosa f. lacustris (With.) Leight., Lecanora lacustris (With.) Nyl., Lecanora lacustris f. geographica Servít, Lecanora lacustris f. lacustris (With.) Nyl., Lichen lacustris With.]
[Gyalideopsis anastomosans P. James & Vězda]
Blue Ridge, source: Lücking, R., W.R. Buck and E. Rivas Plata. 2007. The lichen family Gomphillaceae (Ostropales) in eastern North America, with notes on hyphophore development in Gomphillus and Gyalideopsis. The Bryologist 110(4): 622-672.
[Biatora breadalbanensis (Stirt.) Walt. Watson, Biatora tornoënsis (Nyl.) Th. Fr., Lecidea breadalbanensis Stirt., Lecidea tornoënsis Nyl., Mycoblastus tornoensis (Nyl.) R. Anderson]
Blue Ridge, source: Lendemer, J.C., R.C. Harris and E.A. Tripp. 2013. The lichens and allied fungi of Great Smoky Mountains National Park: an annotated checklist with comprehensive keys. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden Volume 104: 1-152.
[Arthopyrenia fallaciosa (Stizenb. ex Arnold) Thiyagaraja, Ertz, Lücking, Coppins & K.D. Hyde, Mycoglaena fallaciosa (Stizenb. ex Arnold) Vain., Polyblastia fallaciosa Stizenb. ex Arnold, Polyblastiopsis fallaciosa (Stizenb. ex Arnold) Zahlbr., Pyrenula fallaciosa (Stizenb. ex Arnold) Willey, Verrucaria fallaciosa (Stizenb. ex Arnold) Nyl.]
[Lecidea caeca J. Lowe, Rimularia caeca (Lowe) Rambold & Printzen]
[Gyrophora caroliniana (Tuck.) Schol., Umbilicaria caroliniana Tuck.]
source: Dey, JP 1978: Fruticose and foliose lichens of the high-mountain areas of the southern Appalachians. - The Bryologist 81: 1-93.
[Gyrophora pensylvanica (Hoffm.) Ach., Lecidea pensylvanica (Hoffm.) Ach., Lichen leiocarpus * pensylvanica (Hoffm.) Lam., Lichen pensylvanicus (Hoffm.) Ach., Parmelia pensylvanica (Hoffm.) Spreng., Umbilicaria pennsylvanica Hoffm., Umbilicaria pensylvanica Hoffm.]
Blue Ridge, Piedmont, source: Dey, J.P. 1978. Fruticose and foliose lichens of the high-mountain areas of the southern Appalachians. The Bryologist 81(1): 1 - 93.; Schallert, Paul O. 1936-06-15 [NCU]
[Capnia pustulata (L.) A. St.-Hil., Gyromium pustulatum (L.) Wahlenb., Gyrophora pustulata (L.) Ach., Lecidea pustulata (L.) Palmstr. & Venus, Lichen pustulatus L., Macrodictya pustulata (L.) A. Massal., Umbilicaria pustulata (L.) Hoffm., Umbilicaria pustulata f. pustulata (L.) Hoffm., Umbilicaria pustulata var. pustulata (L.) Hoffm.]
[Biatora abietina (Ehrh. ex Ach.) Nägeli ex Hepp, Bilimbia abietina (Ehrh. ex Ach.) Branth & Rostr., Chiodecton pericleum (Ach.) Vain., Cyphelium abietinum (Ehrh. ex Ach.) Fr., Cyphelium incrustans Ach., Cyphelium leucocephalum (Ach.) Ach., Lecanactis abietina f. incrustans (Ach.) H. Olivier, Lecanactis periclea (Ach.) M. Choisy, Lecanora periclea (Ach.) Ach., Lecidea abietina (Ehrh. ex Ach.) Ach., Lecidea abietina var. abietina (Ehrh. ex Ach.) Ach., Lecidea abietina var. incrustans (Ach.) Nyl., Lecidea leucocephala (Ach.) D. Dietr., Lichen abietinus Ehrh. ex Ach., Lichen pericleus Ach., Opegrapha abietina (Ehrh. ex Ach.) Almq., Parmelia periclea (Ach.) Ach., Platygrapha periclea (Ach.) Nyl., Platygrapha periclea var. opegraphoides Ohlert, Platygrapha periclea var. periclea (Ach.) Nyl., Pyrenotea incrustans (Ach.) Fr., Pyrenotea leucocephala (Ach.) Fr., Pyrenula leucocephala (Ach.) Ach., Rinodina periclea (Ach.) Gray, Variolaria leucocephala (Ach.) DC., Verrucaria abietina (Ehrh. ex Ach.) Humb., Verrucaria leucocephala Ach.]
[Lecanactis subattingens (Nyl.) R.C. Harris, Platygrapha subattingens Nyl., Schismatomma subattingens (Nyl.) Zahlbr.]
[Inoderma subabietinum (Coppins & P. James) Ertz & Frisch]
[Catillaria croatica Zahlbr., Coppinsidea croatica (Zahlbr.) S.Y. Kondr., Farkas & Lőkös]
Blue Ridge, Piedmont, source: Harris, R.C. and J.C. Lendemer. 2010. A review of Lecania croatica (syn. Catillaria croatica) in North America. Opuscula Philolichenum 8: 41-49; Perlmutter, Gary B. 1176 [NCU]
[Lecanora albella f. albella (Pers.) Ach., Lecanora albella subsp. albella (Pers.) Ach., Lecanora albella var. albella (Pers.) Ach., Lecanora albella var. rubescens (Imshaug & Brodo) Lumbsch, Lecanora pallida var. rubescens Imshaug & Brodo, Lecanora subalbella Nyl., Lecanora subfusca f. albella (Pers.) Leight., Lichen albellus Pers., Lichen pallidus Schreb., Parmelia albella (Pers.) Ach., Parmelia pallida var. albella (Pers.) Schaer., Psora albella (Pers.) Hampe, Rinodina albella (Pers.) Gray, Verrucaria albella (Pers.) Hoffm.]
Piedmont, Reported as L. pallida, source: Culberson, W.L. 1958. Variation in the pine-inhabiting vegetation of North Carolina. Ecology 39(1): 23-28.
[Lecanora albella (Pers.) Ach., Lecanora albella f. albella (Pers.) Ach., Lecanora albella subsp. albella (Pers.) Ach., Lecanora albella var. rubescens (Imshaug & Brodo) Lumbsch, Lecanora pallida var. rubescens Imshaug & Brodo, Lecanora subalbella Nyl., Lecanora subfusca f. albella (Pers.) Leight., Lichen albellus Pers., Lichen pallidus Schreb., Parmelia albella (Pers.) Ach., Parmelia pallida var. albella (Pers.) Schaer., Psora albella (Pers.) Hampe, Rinodina albella (Pers.) Gray, Verrucaria albella (Pers.) Hoffm.]
[Lecanora albella (Pers.) Ach., Lecanora albella f. albella (Pers.) Ach., Lecanora albella subsp. albella (Pers.) Ach., Lecanora albella var. albella (Pers.) Ach., Lecanora pallida var. rubescens Imshaug & Brodo, Lecanora subalbella Nyl., Lecanora subfusca f. albella (Pers.) Leight., Lichen albellus Pers., Lichen pallidus Schreb., Parmelia albella (Pers.) Ach., Parmelia pallida var. albella (Pers.) Schaer., Psora albella (Pers.) Hampe, Rinodina albella (Pers.) Gray, Verrucaria albella (Pers.) Hoffm.]
Blue Ridge, source: unpublished checklist provided by R.C. Harris (NY).
[Lecanora piniperda Körb., Lecanora piniperda f. detrusa (Th. Fr.) Hedl., Lecanora piniperda f. nigrescens Hedl., Lecanora piniperda f. piniperda Körb., Lecanora piniperda f. polita Hedl., Lecanora piniperda subsp. piniperda Körb., Lecanora piniperda subsp. sarcopisoides (A. Massal.) Hedl., Lecanora piniperda var. glaucella (Flot.) Körb., Lecanora piniperda var. ochrostoma (Hepp) Körb., Lecanora piniperda var. piniperda Körb., Lecanora piniperda var. prorumpens Erichsen]
Blue Ridge, Coastal Plain, source: Degelius, G.N. 1941. Contributions to the Lichen flora of North America II. The lichen flora of the Great Smoky Mountains. Arkiv för BotanikArk. Bot. 30A, Nr. 3: 1-80.; Schallert, Paul O. L-152 [NCU]
[Lecanora subfusca Müll.Arg., Lecanora subfusca f. alboflavescens (A. Massal.) Jatta, Lecanora subfusca f. allophana Ach., Lecanora subfusca f. aspicilioides Harm., Lecanora subfusca f. conferta Hillmann, Lecanora subfusca f. cretacea Malbr., Lecanora subfusca f. dispersa Hillmann, Lecanora subfusca f. expansa (Ach.) Zahlbr., Lecanora subfusca f. exuta Nyl., Lecanora subfusca f. flavescens Sommerf., Lecanora subfusca f. melacarpoides Zahlbr., Lecanora subfusca f. paupera Th. Fr., Lecanora subfusca f. pinastri (Schaer.) Cromb., Lecanora subfusca f. sorediella Arnold, Lecanora subfusca f. spodophaeoides Leight., Lecanora subfusca f. sublactea Harm., Lecanora subfusca f. transcendens Nyl., Lecanora subfusca var. albella (Pers.) Fr., Lecanora subfusca var. albidolutescens Tuck., Lecanora subfusca var. anomala Meyen & Flot., Lecanora subfusca var. argentata Ach., Lecanora subfusca var. atrynea Ach., Lecanora subfusca var. biatorea Nyl., Lecanora subfusca var. bryophila Schaer., Lecanora subfusca var. campestris (Schaer.) Rabenh., Lecanora subfusca var. castanea Meyen & Flot., Lecanora subfusca var. cenisia Stizenb., Lecanora subfusca var. chlarothera (Nyl.) Vain., Lecanora subfusca var. circumplumescens Nyl., Lecanora subfusca var. compacta Müll.Arg., Lecanora subfusca var. conjugens Müll.Arg., Lecanora subfusca var. distans (Pers.) D. Dietr., Lecanora subfusca var. duplicata Tuck., Lecanora subfusca var. excrescens Hillmann, Lecanora subfusca var. flavescens Sommerf., Lecanora subfusca var. geographica A. Massal., Lecanora subfusca var. glebulosa Flot., Lecanora subfusca var. hypnorum (Wulfen) Schaer., Lecanora subfusca var. innovata Hillmann, Lecanora subfusca var. lecideoides Nyl., Lecanora subfusca var. margaritacea Körb., Lecanora subfusca var. melaleuca Müll.Arg., Lecanora subfusca var. melanocardia Tuck., Lecanora subfusca var. mesophana Nyl., Lecanora subfusca var. minor Müll.Arg., Lecanora subfusca var. orbicularis A. Massal. ex Bagl., Lecanora subfusca var. pallidevirens Meyen & Flot., Lecanora subfusca var. pelidnocarpa Mont., Lecanora subfusca var. rufa (Weiss) Ach., Lecanora subfusca var. subcrenulata Vain., Lecanora subfusca var. subgranulata Nyl., Lecanora subfusca var. testaceopallida Müll.Arg., Lecanora subfusca var. variolosa Körb.]
Blue Ridge, source: Schmitt, C.K. & N.G. Slack. 1990. Host specificity of epiphytic lichens and bryophytes: a comparison of the Adirondack Mountains (New York) and the Southern Blue Ridge Mountains (North Carolina). The Bryologist 93(3): 257 - 274.
Blue Ridge, Outer Piedmont / Fall Line, source: Lendemer, J.C., R.C. Harris and E.A. Tripp. 2013. The lichens and allied fungi of Great Smoky Mountains National Park: an annotated checklist with comprehensive keys. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden Volume 104: 1-152.; J. C. Lendemer 8353 [NY], Perlmutter, Gary B. 2155 [NCU], Perlmutter, Gary B. 4262 [NCU]
[Lecanora subfusca f. argentata (Ach.) Flot., Lecanora subfuscata H. Magn., Lecanora subfuscata f. geographica (Flagey) Szatala, Lecanora subfuscata f. lignicola Szatala, Lecanora subfuscata f. melacarpa (Harm.) Szatala, Lecanora subfuscata f. subfuscata H. Magn., Lecanora subfuscata f. variolosa (Körb.) Grummann, Lecanora subfuscata var. excrescens (Hillmann) Hillmann, Lecanora subfuscata var. rhododendri Poelt, Lecanora subfuscata var. subfuscata H. Magn., Lecanora subfuscata var. variolosa Körb., Parmelia subfusca var. argentata Ach., Urceolaria acharii var. argentata Ach.]
Blue Ridge, source: Schmitt, C.K. & N.G. Slack. 1990. Host specificity of epiphytic lichens and bryophytes: a comparison of the Adirondack Mountains (New York) and the Southern Blue Ridge Mountains (North Carolina). The Bryologist 93(3): 257 - 274.
[Lecanora australiensis Zahlbr., Lecanora caesiorubella subsp. caesiorubella Ach., Lecanora cancriformis (Hoffm.) Vain., Lecanora leucoma Nyl., Lecanora pallida var. caesiorubella (Ach.) H. Magn., Lecanora pulverata Stirt., Parmelia caesiorubella (Ach.) Fr., Patellaria caesiorubella (Ach.) Trevis., Verrucaria cancriformis Hoffm.]
maritime forest; partly shady; Substrate: trunk thorn of Zanthoxylum clava-herculis; Perlmutter, Gary B. 308 [NCU]
[Lecanora glaucomodes Nyl., Lecanora glaucomodes var. albopruinosa (Stirt.) Zahlbr., Lecanora glaucomodes var. densa H. Magn., Lecanora glaucomodes var. glaucomodes Nyl.]
source: Lendemer, J.C. & R. Yahr. 2004. A checklist of the lichens collected during the Tuckerman Workshop #12, Outer Banks, North Carolina, USA. Evansia 21(3): 118 - 136.; J. W. Barton 596 [NY], Perlmutter, Gary B. 4323 [NCU]
[Lecanora caesiorubella subsp. prolifera (Fink) R.C. Harris, Lecanora pallida subsp. prolifera Fink ex J. Hedrick, Lecanora protervula Stirton, Lecanora subpallida G. Merr.]
[Lecanora caesiorubella subsp. lathamii Imshaug & Brodo, Lecanora pallida subsp. prolifera Fink ex J. Hedrick, Lecanora protervula Stirton, Lecanora subpallida G. Merr.]
[Parmelia cenisia (Ach.) Fr., Patellaria cenisia (Ach.) Trevis., Urceolaria cenisia (Ach.) Link, Zeora cenisia (Ach.) Flot.]
low elevation rocky summit plant community; sunny; substrate: quartzite wall; Perlmutter, Gary B. 584 [NCU]
[Lecanora chlarotera f. crassula (H. Magn.) Poelt, Lecanora crassula H. Magn., Lecanora distincta var. chlarona Ach., Lecanora subfusca var. chlarona (Ach.) Ach.]
Piedmont, source: Perlmutter, G.B. 2006. Lichen inventory of the North Carolina Piedmont. Castanea 71(4): 282-294.; Perlmutter, Gary B. 4309 [NCU], Perlmutter, Gary B. 4328 [NCU], Perlmutter, Gary B. 307 [NCU]
Blue Ridge, source: Schmitt, C.K. & N.G. Slack. 1990. Host specificity of epiphytic lichens and bryophytes: a comparison of the Adirondack Mountains (New York) and the Southern Blue Ridge Mountains (North Carolina). The Bryologist 93(3): 257 - 274.
source: Lendemer, J.C. & R. Yahr. 2004. A checklist of the lichens collected during the Tuckerman Workshop #12, Outer Banks, North Carolina, USA. Evansia 21(3): 118 - 136.
[Lecanora conizaea (Ach.) Nyl., Lecanora conizaea f. conizaea (Ach.) Nyl., Lecanora conizaea f. variola Arnold, Lecanora conizaea var. conizaea (Ach.) Nyl., Lecanora conizaea var. conizaeoides (Nyl. ex Cromb.) A.L. Sm., Lecanora expallens var. conizaea Ach., Lecidea expallens (Ach.) Borrer, Lepraria expallens (Ach.) Fr., Rinodina conizaea (Ach.) Nyl.]
Blue Ridge, source: Degelius, G.N. 1941. Contributions to the Lichen flora of North America II. The lichen flora of the Great Smoky Mountains. Arkiv för BotanikArk. Bot. 30A, Nr. 3: 1-80.
[Lecanora subfusca var. glabrata Ach., Lecanora subfuscata f. glabrata (Ach.) Poelt, Parmelia subfusca var. glabrata (Ach.) Schaer.]
Blue Ridge, source: Lendemer, J.C., R.C. Harris and E.A. Tripp. 2013. The lichens and allied fungi of Great Smoky Mountains National Park: an annotated checklist with comprehensive keys. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden Volume 104: 1-152.
[Lecidea hypoptoides Nyl.]
Blue Ridge, source: Degelius, G.N. 1941. Contributions to the Lichen flora of North America II. The lichen flora of the Great Smoky Mountains. Arkiv för BotanikArk. Bot. 30A, Nr. 3: 1-80.