Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2004. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 2.
Thallus: fruticose, shrubby, up to 5 cm long branching: irregularly and intricately branched from a common or delimited holdfast branches: solid, flattened in main branches becoming terete or irregularly thickened distally, 0.5-1 mm in diam. surface: pale green to grayish green, smooth to +uneven, often striate, sorediate soredia: coarsely granular often with cylindrical fibrils, in punctiform, lateral or laminal soralia pseudocyphellae: common, ellipsoid or short linear cortex: thin; chondroid strands: continuous or dissected, smooth Apothecia: not seen for the Sonoran material Pycnidia: not observed Spot tests: cortex K-, C-, KC+ yellow, P-; medulla K-, C-, KC-, P- Secondary metabolites: cortex with usnic acid; medulla with homosekikaic acid (major), sekikaic acid (major), and 4'-O-methylnorhomosekikaic acid and 4'-O-methylnorsekikaic acid (both minor). Substrate and ecology: on branches World distribution: cosmopolitan Sonoran distribution: rare in Baja California and Baja California Sur. Notes: Ramalina farinacea is the only species in the Sonoran area that may be mistaken for R. peruviana, but it has broader (up to 3 mm wide) and sparingly branched laciniae and produces depsidones such as protocetraric acid or norstictic acid.
A pantropical species already reported by Weber (1986); mostly corticolous, mostly inland. Because of its thin branches and a similar habitus, R. peruviana could be mistaken for R. sorediosa. Though equally thin, branches of R. peruviana are, however, irregularly angular to indistinctly flattened, never terete. Most diagnostic are the fine isidiate branchlets that develop from the soralia of R. peruviana. These branchlets are typically also present at the tip of thallus branches; they cannot be observed in R. sorediosa.
Selected specimens examined. Ecuador: Galápagos: Isabela Island, Villamil, alt. 410 m, on dead twigs, 28 viii 1905, A. Stewart 372 (CAS no. 638118); Volcán Alcedo, in the crater, 0˚ 27’ 9” S, 91˚ 6’ 41” W, alt. 780 m, transition zone; mostly Bursera graveolens and dense scrub on uneven lava, on bark, twigs, 07 iii 2006, A. Aptroot 64750 (CDS no. 31325); outer SE-exposed slope and crater rim , 0˚ 27’ 29” S, 91˚ 7’ 19” W, alt. 1089 m, fern-sedge zone; tortoise pasture with scattered trees (Tournefortia rufo-sericea, Zanthoxylum fagara), on bark, Tournefortia, 05 iii 2006, A. Aptroot 65038 (CDS no. 31620); Pinzón Island, along the trail going up from Playa Escondida, N- to W-facing cliff above a crater, 0˚ 36’ 29” S, 90˚ 40’ 14” W, alt. 318 m, dry transition zone with Cordia lutea, Croton scouleri, and at the bottom of the cliff also Scalesia baurii ssp. baurii, on bark, twigs, 16 ii 2006, A. Aptroot 64059 (CDS no. 30620); San Cristóbal Island, S of Punta Pit at the NE-coast of the island, 0˚ 43’ 27” S, 89˚ 15’ 6” W, alt. 113 m, coastal zone; on top a crater rim, open shrubland with Cordia lutea and abundant Mentzelia aspera as ground cover, on bark, twigs of dead shrub; sunny, wind- and rain-exposed, 20 iv 2007, F. Bungartz 6110 (CDS no. 33789); Santa Cruz Island, along the southern part of the loop road from Bellavista to Garrapatero, 0˚ 41’ 30” S, 90˚ 18’ 10” W, alt. 210 m, agricultural zone; Coffee and Guava plantations, on bark, Cedrela, 19 ii 2006, A. Aptroot 64221 (CDS no. 30787); along the road from Bellavista to El Garrapatero, at the boundary of the National Park, 0˚ 40’ 0” S, 90˚ 15’ 46” W, alt. 252 m, transition zone with Zanthoxylum fagara, Lantana camara, Citrus sp, and Croton scouleri, on rock (basalt lava), 14 ii 2006, A. Aptroot 63938 A (CDS no. 30494); Santiago Island, ca. 5 km inland from the E-coast, ± at the same latitude as Bahía Sullivan, 0˚ 16’ 35” S, 90˚ 37’ 23” W, alt. 172 m, arid zone; plateau of lava flows and boulders with scarce vegetation (Bursera graveolens, Castela galapageia, Mentzelia aspera), on bark, twigs of Castela galapageia; sunny, wind- and rain-exposed, 18 vii 2006, F. Bungartz 5238 (CDS no. 29453).
from: Aptroot, A. & Bungartz, F. (2007) The lichen genus Ramalina on the Galapagos. The Lichenologist39(6): 519-542.