Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Thallus: adnate, foliose, 4-10 cm in diam., irregularly lobate lobes: sublinear to subirregular, moderately imbricate, elongate, plane to subconvex, separate, 1.5-5 mm wide; apices: subrotund, with prominent inflated, bulbate cilia upper surface: pale gray, smooth to rugose, shiny, faintly or distinctly white maculate isidia: laminal, dense, cylindrical, simple to coralloid; soredia and pustulae absent medulla: white with continuous algal layer lower surface: pale brown or darkening, moderately rhizinate, the rhizines, pale to medium brown, simple to branched, concolorous Apothecia: , rare, laminal, 1-4 mm wide; disc: red brown to dark brown; margin: outer rim usually isidiate, inner rim ecoronate ascospores: ellipsoid, 7-14 x 5-8 µm Pycnidia: common, immersed conidia: bacilliform to weakly bifusiform, 5-6 x 1 µm Spot tests: upper cortex K+ yellow, C-, KC-, P+ yellow; medulla K+ yellow turning deep red, C-, KC-, P+ orange Secondary metabolites: upper cortex with atranorin and chloroatranorin; medulla with salazinic acid (major) and consalazinic (minor). Substrate and ecology: on small trees in open habitats World distribution: pantropical and extending into subtropics Sonoran distribution: lowland thorn forests of Sonora.