Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Life habit: lichenized, not lichenicolous Thallus: areolate areoles: up to 1 mm diam., adjacent, rounded to angular, plane to moderately convex upper surface: dark brown, often with a gray tinge, epruinose, dull or somewhat shiny, smooth or with shallow, irregular fissures, lacking pores and pseudocyphellae upper cortex: up to 50 µm high, lacking or containing calcium oxalate margin: concolorous with upper surface Apothecia: up to 0.8 mm diam., plane and marginate when young, becoming convex and immarginate, epruinose; exciple: dark gray in the rim, reddish brown in inner part; hypothecium: reddish brown; epithecium: gray (K+ violet, N+ violet) asci: clavate, 8-spored ascospores: ellipsoid, 1-septate, 10-14 x 4.5-6.5 µm Pycnidia: laminal, immersed conidia: filiform Spot tests: all negative Secondary metabolites: none detected. Host: none Substrate and ecology: on sandstone at 1680 m World distribution: scattered in arid areas of Asia (China and Iran) and North America (Arizona, Colorado and New Mexico) Sonoran distribution: northern Arizona (single locality).