Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2004. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 2.
Apothecia: 0.2-0.4 mm tall, with a short but distinct stalk, black or rarely dark brown stalk: about as high as the capitulum (0.6-1.7 times as long), black, consisting of largely periclinally arranged, intertwined and anastomosing hyphae with strongly gelatinous walls, 3-4 µm in diam.; upper part: consisting of a layer of isodiametric, sclerotized cells, up to 8 µm in diam. capitulum: 0.1-0.2 mm in diam., +globose, often slightly irregular, shiny, black asci: cylindrical, 49-57 x 7-8 µm ascospores: dark brown, subglobose, non-septate, 7-10 x 7-9 µm, with distinct ornamentation of minute warts; spore coat: thin, not always visible in water-mounts of semi-mature spores Spot tests: all parts of ascomata K- Secondary metabolites: none detected. Hosts: various crustose lichens (e.g., Protoparmelia) over wood World distribution: Europe; North America Sonoran distribution: southern California.