Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Life habit: lichenized Thallus: umbilicate, subfruticose, fruticose, gelatinous when wet surface: black, dark brown-red, sometimes grayish pruinose, smooth or rough anatomy: ecorticate, homoiomerous, loose network of hyphae surrounding photobiont cells, central hyphal strands often present in basal parts photobionts: primary one a chroococcoid cyanobacterium, secondary photobiont absent Ascomata: apothecial, sometimes appearing perithecioid, terminal, orbicular, sessile to stipitate, margin distinct to prominent, with thick thalloid rim ontogeny: hemiangiocarpous, formed from ascogonia free beneath the thallus surface ascoma anatomy: exciple: absent or hardly developed, hyaline; epithecium: hyaline or brownish yellow; hypothecium: hyaline or pale brownish-yellow asci: prototunicate, wall thin, non-amyloid, 8-32-spored ascospores: simple, broad ellipsoid or globose; 7-12 x 6-9 µm; walls: thin, hyaline Conidiomata: pycnidial, laminal, immersed conidia: ellipsoid or bacilliform, c. 3 x 1 µm Secondary metabolites: none detected Geography: arid, semi-arid to warm temperate regions Substrate: limestone, calcareous, or siliceous rocks. Notes: Species of Peccania are similar; however, they have a distinct central strand, red patches in the hymenium and filiform conidia. Some Lichinella species are also similar; however, they have a fountain-like arrangement of the hyphae and thallinocarpous ascomata.