Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2004. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 2.
Life habit: lichenized Thallus: immersed in the substrate or superficial, continuous crustose to rimose to areolate or squamulose surface: white to gray, green to brown, or yellow photobiont: primary one a chlorococcoid green alga, secondary photobiont absent Ascomata: apothecial, laminal on thallus, orbicular to rarely slightly lingulate, immersed to sessile, margin indistinct disc: bright orange, orange to dark brown, or olivaceous, slightly concave to distinctly convex margin: indistinct, becoming excluded exciple: hyaline to pale orange, with parallel-radiate hyphae epihymenium: divergent towards apex hymenium: hyaline, 50-150 µm tall; paraphyses: branched and anastomosing, apices slightly to distinctly thickened; hypothecium: hyaline, orange to brown, or violaceous asci: 8-spored ascospores: hyaline, simple, ellipsoid to broadly ellipsoid, oval, or globose, 7.5-20 x 4-9 µm; wall: thin and smooth, hyaline Conidiomata: pycnidial, immersed conidia: bacilliform, hyaline, 5-7 x 1-1.5 µm Secondary metabolites: anthraquinone pigments in epihymenium, partly in exciple and in hypothecium, rarely in thallus cortical layers Geography: world-wide in arctic-alpine, boreal, temperate to subtropical regions Substrate: calcareous rock, rarely soil over calcareous rock.