Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Life habit: lichenized Thallus: foliose, ± circular, adnate to tightly adnate, irregularly to rarely dichotomously lobate lobes: flat, sublinear to subirregular; tips: subrotund to rotund, ciliate; cilia: simple, primarily in axils upper surface: gray to gray green, rarely yellowish, commonly maculate, with or without soredia, isidia or pustules; pseudocyphellae absent upper cortex: pored epicortex, palisade plectenchymatous medulla: white or lower medulla yellow-orange; cell walls: containing isolichenan photobionts: primary one a Trebouxia, secondary photobiont absent lower surface: black or dark brown, rhizinate; rhizines: black, simple to rarely squarrose Ascomata: apothecial, laminal, sessile to subpedicellate, up to 5 mm diam.; disc: imperforate, brown; exciple: gray or hyaline; epithecium: brown or brownish yellow; hypothecium: hyaline asci: lecanoral; apex: thickened, amyloid, with divergent axial body, 8-spored ascospores: simple, ellipsoid, 8-14 x 5-9 µm Conidiomata: pycnidial, laminal, immersed conidia: cylindrical or bacilliform to weakly fusiform, 3-8 x 1 µm Secondary metabolites: upper cortex with atranorin and chloroatranorin; medulla with orcinol depside or aliphatic acids Geography: pantemperate and relatively cosmopolitan Substrate: on bark, rarely on rock. Notes: From the original conception of Parmelina (Hale 1974c), Parmelinopsis was segregated (Elix and Hale 1987) as having apically truncate, emaculate lobes, simple to dichotomously branched rhizines, larger spores and smaller conidia.