Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2007. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 3.
Life habit: non-lichenized fungi, saprobic Thallus: absent, often overgowing other dematiacious hyphomycetes on resin photobiont: absent Ascomata: apothecial, sessile, biatorine, ascohymenial disc: pale pink-yellow to reddish brown, or blackened, plane to convex margin: absent or thin, soon disappearing, with the same pigments as found in the epihymenium exciple: paraplectenchymatous, hyaline to pale brown, composed of radiating hyphae immersed in a gel forming a textura intricata epihymenium: yellow-orange to reddish brown or brown, with amorphous granules hymenium: hyaline or pale yellow, I+ deep blue; paraphyses: filiform, simple or occasionally forked apically, with slightly swollen tips subhymenium: hyaline to pale brown, gelatinous, with interwoven hyphae forming a textura intricata asci: Lecanora-type, thick walled with multiple layers but not functionally bitunicate, cylindrical to clavate, outermost layer I+ pale or medium blue, innermost layer forming a thick apical cap pierced by a central pore, 100+-spored ascospores: hyaline, simple, globose, 2-3.5 µm wide; thin walled, smooth Conidiomata: pycnidial, common, subglobose conidia: hyaline, simple, thin or thick walled Secondary metabolites: not investigated Geography: primarily boreal and montane areas of North America and Eurasia Substrate: on resinous exudates of confers. Notes: This non-lichenized fungus is sometimes collected by lichenologists and previously was placed in the genus Biatorella, species of which are now circumscribed as only being lichenized. The resinous ecology of Sarea also separates it from Biatorella or Lecidea. Because of the earlier placement in predominately lichen genera, Sarea species are sometimes treated in lichenological floras. Originally Fries sent a specimen to Acharius, who dealt primarily with lichens, and on his advise placed the species in the genus Lecidea. A third species is reported in the recent literature, but has been transferred to Sktyella.