Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2004. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 2.
Life habit: lichenized Thallus: crustose and areolate, or squamulose, stratified, sorediate or esorediate upper surface: greenish, grayish, pinkish, or reddish gray medulla: distinct to indistinct or absent lower surface: not evident or tomentose photobiont: primary one a green, trebouxioid alga, secondary one absent Ascomata: not with known with certainty conidiomata: unknown Secondary metabolite: a triterpene Geography: cosmopolitan on all continents except Antarctica Substrate: over mosses and other lichens, rarely on bare bark and stone.