Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Life habit: lichenized Thallus: small-squamulose to granular, often forming crustose mats over the substrate; hypothallus: poorly developed and inconspicuous upper surface: usually olivaceous to blackish, sometimes gray to dark brown, dull upper cortex: paraplectenchymatous medulla: composed of intricately interwoven, lax plectenchyma photobiont: primary one a Nostoc, secondary photobiont absent Ascomata: apothecial, common, with strong thalline margin; disc: bright orange-brown to olivaceous or dark brown; hymenium: I+ dark blue asci: clavate to subcylindrical, without internal apical amyloid structures but with an I+ deep blue external cap, 8-spored ascospores: simple, colorless, ellipsoid, with prominent rugulose to warted epispore Conidiomata: pycnidial, pale brown conidia: simple, bacilliform, colorless Secondary metabolites: none detected Geography: widespread in cool to cold temperate to polar habitats, primarily in the Southern Hemisphere Substrate: on soil. Notes: The genus is a small, bipolar genus. It was recently erected as a segregate from Pannaria (Jørgensen 2000a), and is similar to Psoroma in many respects except for the apical apparatus of the asci. Molecular data (unpublished) do not support its retention within Pannaria.