Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Thallus: foliose, 3-8 cm diam., adnate to loosely adnate, subdichotomously lobate lobes: sublinear, elongate, plane, separate, 1-3 mm wide; margin: entire; apices: subtruncate upper surface: light gray, smooth, dull or shiny; white maculate isidia: laminal, cylindrical to rarely coralloid; soralia, pustulae and dactyls absent medulla: white with continuous algal layer lower surface: black, peripherally brownish black; rhizines: sparse; black, dichotomous Apothecia: rare, laminal, sessile, 2-5 mm in diam.; disc: brown; margin: crenulate, isidiate asci: clavate, 8-spored ascospores: broardly ellipsoid, 8-11 x 5-8 µm Pycnidia: not seen Spot tests: upper cortex K+ yellow, C-, KC-, P+ yellow, UV-; medulla K- or K+ if skyrin present, C-, KC-, P+ orange Secondary metabolites: upper cortex with atranorin and chloroatranorin; medulla with protocetraric acids (major) and skyrin (accessory). Substrate and ecology: on hardwood or pine bark in upper montane and subalpine forests World distribution: throughout the neotropics, including the Carribean region Sonoran distribution: Sinaloa in the Sierra Madre Occidental.