Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Life habit: lichenized, lichenicolous or not Thallus: squamulose squamules: up to 3 (-5) mm diam., scattered to adjacent, rounded, plane to moderately convex, sometimes with a central depression upper surface: white to pale gray, partly to entirely covered by farinose pruina, dull, with deep, regular fissures, lacking pores and pseudocyphellae upper cortex: up to 220 µm high, containing calcium oxalate margin: concolorous with upper surface or white Apothecia: up to 1.3 mm diam., ± plane and marginate, epruinose or faintly pruinose; exciple: dark reddish brown in the rim, paler in inner part; hypothecium: pale brown to colorless; epithecium: reddish brown (K+ red, N-) asci: clavate, 8-spored ascospores: ellipsoid to bacilliform, 1-3 septate, 12-20 x 3-4.5 µm Pycnidia: laminal, immersed conidia: filiform Spot tests: all negative Secondary metabolites: none detected. Host: cyanolichens Substrate and ecology: on soil and calciferous rock in coastal scrub up to 1070 m and in interior pinyon-juniper woodland, up to 2200 m World distribution: scattered in arid areas in the temperate region of the Northern Hemisphere, Namibia Sonoran distribution: rare in Arizona and Baja California.