Holotype: South America, Brazil: Pará, Serra do Cachimbo, Aeroporto Cachimbo, ca. 20 km N of the border with Mato Grosso on Cuiabá-Santarém highway (BR163), ca. 9º 2’00” S, 54º54’00” W, 430-480 m, gallery Forest along the Rio Formiga, 27-Apr-1983, Brako & Dibben 6129 (ny!).
Thallus corticolous, greenish gray becoming pale dusky gray in the herbarium; medulla white. Lobes ca. 0.3–0.7 (–1.0) mm wide, sublinear to distinctly laciniate, dichotomously or trichotomously branched, contiguous to ± crowded, adnate, firmly attached; apices truncate to subtruncate; margin smooth to sinuous or subirregular. Upper surface continuous, smooth, lacking ciliary bulbs; maculae absent, sometimes with scars from isidia that have broken off; adventive lobes generally rare and sparse, short, randomly distributed along the margins. Cilia black, simple to eventually furcate and then subdichotomously or irregularly branched, abundant, but confined to the lobe margins, with basal bulbs. Soredia and pustules absent. Isidia scarce to abundant, laminal, simple to sparsely branched, rarely with few ciliary bulbs. Lower surface ±shiny, smooth to subrugose, black and densely rhizinate throughout, rarely with a distinct, narrow deep brown smooth to papillate, weakly rhizinate marginal zone. Rhizines pale to dark brown, simple to furcate and soon becoming dichotomously or irregularly branched, abundant and equally distributed, occasionally with inconspicous basal bulbs. Apothecia rare (not observed in Galapagos specimens), if present laminal, adnate, flat; margin subrugose, ecoronate, smooth; disc pale brown, epruinose, imperforate; ascospores rounded to subrounded, 4.0–5.0 (–6.0) × 3.5–5.0 µm, epispore ca. 0.75 µm thick (Benatti 2011). Pycnidia not observed.
Chemistry. Cortex with atranorin, medulla with traces of an undetermined fatty acid.
Distribution and ecology. Neotropical, reported from Central America (Costa Rica, Puerto Rico) and South America (Brazil) (Benatti 2011); new to Galapagos and Ecuador; the only specimen currently known from Galapagos (San Cristóbal Island) was found in the transition zone, on sunny, wind- and rain-exposed twigs of the native shrub. Clerodendrum molle.
Specimens examined. Ecuador. Galapagos Islands: Isla San Cristóbal, trail from Cerro Pelado to El Ripioso, S of Cerro Partido, 0˚ 51’ 28.10” S, 89˚ 27’ 38.00” W, 372 m alt., open flat area with the abundant annual herb Malachra capitata and scattered shrubs of Psidium guajava and Croton scouleri, on twigs of Clerodendrum molle; sunny, wind- and rain-exposed, 23-Aug-2008, Bungartz, F. 8544 (CDS 41190).
from: Bungartz, F., Benatti, M.N. & Spielmann, A. (2013) Parmeliaceae of the Galapagos Islands, part I: The genus Bulbothrix Hale. The Bryologist116(4): 358–372.