Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2007. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 3.
Life habit: lichenized Thallus: crustose, continuous or areolate, without elongated lobes; prothallus: present, black surface: yellowish orange, smooth, isidiate isidia: coralloid, laminal Apothecia: present, adnate, 0.3-1 mm in diam., lecanorine disc: orange, flat, epruinose margin: persistent, flush or slightly raised; thalline margin present or absent, concolorous with thallus; proper margin visible, little lighter than disc parathecium: consisting of radiating hyphae; exciple below hypothecium amorphous epihymenium: golden, K+ red, C- hymenium: hyaline, (60-)70-75 µm tall paraphyses: tip cells not swollen, not branched or with few branches; subhymenium hyaline asci: cylindrical, 8-spored ascospores: hyaline, 2 locules, ellipsoid, 11-14(-15.5) x 5.5-7(-8.5) µm, isthmus 5.5-7 µm, spore end wall thin Pycnidia: present, mostly immersed, ostiole orange Spot tests: apothecial margin K+ red, C-; thallus K+ red, C- Secondary metabolites: unidentified anthraquinones. Substrate and ecology: on wood or occasionally on calcareous rocks World distribution: North, Central and South America Sonoran distribution: Baja California Sur. Notes: Caloplaca epiphora has a thin, areolate, smooth, yellow-orange thallus with orange simple to coralloid isidia, algae in the margin of the apothecia, and no oil in the hypothecium. The quantity of isidia can vary considerably from very abundant to quite rare. The isidia are often short and may appear to be granular soredia but in some protected places on the bark they are usually larger and coralloid. Species 5 has globose isidia, thicker areoles becoming somewhat subsquamulose.