Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Thallus: continuous, superficial to semi-immersed in the substrate, forming small ± delimited patches; prothallus: absent upper surface: dark gray (elsewhere deep red-brown or dark brown and becoming olivaceous in shade), smooth photobiont: a trentepohlioid alga Perithecia: hemispherical, black, semi-immersed in the thallus, usually scattered, 0.1-0.5 mm diam. involucrellum: black, exposed, shiny; true ascomatal wall: black, absent below the hamathecium exciple: semi-opaque, ± colorless with brown inclusions hamathecium: composed of nearly unbranched pseudoparaphyses, not anastomosing; filaments: c. 0.5-1 µm wide, not inspersed with oil droplets asci: cylindrical, c. 70-100 x 10-15 µm, with 8, irregularly arranged ascospores ascospores: hyaline, fusiform, 3-septate (starting with a median euseptum), 19-22 x 4.5-5.5 µm; walls: not ornamented, without a gelatinous sheath Pycnidia: immersed conidia: macroconidia: 1-septate, 12-16 x 4.5 µm; microconidia: ellipsoid, 2 x 0.5 µm Spot tests: all negative, UV negative Secondary metabolites: none detected. Substrate and ecology: on bark of Quercus World distribution: temperate in the Northern Hemisphere Sonoran distribution: only collected on the Channel Islands (California).