Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Thallus: small foliose, forming small rosettes, 0.5-2.0 (3.0) cm in diam. lobes: elongate, up to 2 mm long, 0.3-0.5 mm wide, stellately radiating, 0.2-0.8 mm wide at apex (group of lobe tips) upper surface: dark olive-green, smooth to slightly grooved isidia: ± developing laminally, cylindrical and erect, up to 1 mm tall and c. 0.1 mm thick, present especially in older thalli lower surface: pale olive, with tuffs of pale rhizines Apothecia: frequent, deep red-brown, soon convex, 0.4-1 (-1.5) mm in diam.; proper margin: formed by a pseudoexciple (35-60 micrometer wide); hymenium: upper part brown and below hyaline, 65-100 micrometer high; subhymenium: colorless and partly pseudo-parenchymatous, 40-70 micrometer thick asci: 32-52 x 6-11.5 micrometer, 8-spored ascospores: spirally twisted within ascus, acicular to slightly curved, colorless, simple, (32-) 43-55 x 1.5-2 (-3) micrometer Pycnidia: laminal, pyriform, 0.2-0.3 micrometer in diam.; ostiole: brown conidia: rod-shaped, 4.5-6 x 1 micrometer Spot tests: all negative Secondary metabolites: none detected. Substrate and ecology: on bark, particularly oak species in moist to open woodlands at intermediate elevations World distribution: western North America (CA, AZ, NM and Mexico) and Mediterranean areas of Europe (Italy) Sonoran distribution: common and inconspicuous in eastern and SE Arizona and coastal mountain ranges of California, rarer in the Sierra Madre Occidental region as far south as Durango.