Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Thallus: foliose, loosely adnate, 3-10 cm in diam., lobate lobes: subirregular, elongate, slightly imbricate, plane, separate, 10-30 mm wide; apices: rotund, often ascending, elacinate and eciliate upper surface: gray with some blackened areas, smooth, dull to shiny, usually weakly white maculate soredia: granular, common, in linear, submarginal or marginal soralia; isidia and pustulae: absent medulla: white with continuous algal layer lower surface: black with brown to mottled white naked zone peripherally, centrally rhizinate; rhizines: scattered, simple Apothecia: rare, substipitate, up to 10 mm in diam.; margin: sparsely sorediate; disc: brown, often perforate ascospores: ellipsoid to broadly ellipsoid, 12-18 x 7-10 µm Pycnidia: not seen Spot tests: upper cortex K+ yellow, C-, KC-, P-; medulla K-, C+ red, KC+ red, P- Secondary metabolites: upper cortex with atranorin and chloroatranorin; medulla with lecanoric acid (major). Substrate and ecology: usually on trees in open habitats, rarely on rocks World distribution: pantropical and extending into some adjacent temperate areas Sonoran distribution: .coastal areas of California, Sonora and Sinaloa.