Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
lobes: predominantly erect, 0.5-1 mm wide, repeatedly branched; branchlets: diverging, rarely broadened or furcate at tips upper surface: black, rough due to numerous small globose isidia (50-250 µm) that may become scale-like (up to 0.5 mm wide) lower surface: furrowed Apothecia: not seen in Sonoran samples; elsewhere, marginal, stipitate, lecanorine, up to 1 mm wide, with persisting thalline margin; disc: dark red, open; exciple: lacking; hymenium: up to 100 µm high, amyloid; paraphyses: distinctly septate, sparingly branched and anastomosing, apical cells indistinctly thickened; hypothecium: ± inverse cone-shaped, elongated as a stipe into the central strand asci: 8-spored, sometimes fewer ascospores: simple, hyaline, broadly ellipsoid, often poorly developed, 12-14 x 7-8 µm; walls: thin Pycnidia: immersed, marginal, ± globose, c. 0.15 mm wide conidia: cylindrical, hyaline, 2.5-4 x 1 µm Spot tests: all negative Secondary metabolites: none detected. Substrate and ecology: on volcanic rocks, with D. polyglossa on steep rock faces rocky slopes; (presumably coastal to) montane World distribution: Kenya, Cape Verde Islands, South Yemen, Socotra Island, SW North America Sonoran distribution: Baja California Sur and Sonora. Notes: It is difficult to separate from D. polyglossa, see notes below.