Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2004. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 2.
Thallus: foliose, often forming a cushion, 2-5(-8) cm in diam., adnate, irregularly lobate lobes: irregular, elongate, +plane, separate or more usually imbricate, 1-3(-5) mm wide, 60-135 µm thick; apices: rotund, entire to irregularly cut or lobulate, usually suberect to erect upper surface: dark brown or reddish brown or in sheltered situations grayish brown, dull centrally and shiny marginally, roughened or irregularly wrinkled, not isidiate internal anatomy: with upper and lower cortices consisting of a single layer of irregularly isodiametrical cells 5-9 µm in diam., internally with loosely interwoven chains of Nostoc and hyphae lower surface: pale to medium gray or brown, wrinkled, with scattered tufts of white hairs Apothecia: common, laminal, sessile, 0.2-0.5(-2) mm wide disc: light to dark brown, concave to plane margin: thalline, concolorous with the thallus, entire to wrinkled periclinally exciple: euparaplectenchymatous, 10-35 µm thick centrally hymenium: hyaline below and thinly brown above, 115-170 µm tall; paraphyses: unbranched, c. 1 µm wide, slightly inflated apically; subhymenium: yellow to pale brown, 10-50 µm thick asci: cylindrico-clavate, 8-spored ascospores: hyaline, muriform, 5-7(-9)-septate transversely, 1-2-septate longitudinally, ellipsoid to subfusiform, (22-)25-35(-42) x (11-)12-14(-17) µm Pycnidia: not observed Spot tests: all negative Secondary metabolites: none detected. Substrate and ecology: among mosses over rocks, particularly limestone World distribution: very common in Europe, North America and India Sonoran distribution: Arizona and southern California.