Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2004. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 2.
Life habit: lichenicolous, or saprophytic on decaying plant material, non-lichenized Ascomata: catathecioid, 40-250 µm wide, superficial, dispersed or in groups, convex, 15250 µm high, dark brown to black; the upper ascomatal layer one cell thick, composed of radially-arranged, dark brown quadrangular or elongated cells of 2.5-18 x 2-14 µm, ostiolate ostiole: central, not or little raised, sometimes surrounded by setae; basal layer: one cell thick, composed of brownish quadrangular or elongate cells; margin: entire to irregular paraphyses: absent or present but often difficult to observe, simple to regularly branched periphyses: absent asci: ovoid to subcylindrical, fissitunicate, without a distinct ocular chamber, without any amyloid reactions (I- and KI-), 4-8-spored, 16-81 x 5-17 µm ascospores: hyaline, ellipsoid, with a single median septum, not or slightly constricted at the septum, 7.5-28 x 2-8.5 µm, smooth, the upper cell bearing one to four pairs of setulae attached on the upper cell close to the septum, or setulae absent (setulae sometimes difficult to observe), without a sheath Conidiomata: unknown Geography: cosmopolitan Substrate: lichen thalli of various genera and decaying plant material.