Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2004. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 2.
Life Habit: lichenized Thallus: crustose, effuse prothallus: missing or grayish black surface: white, dull photobiont: primary one a trebouxioid green alga, secondary one absent Ascomata: apothecial, biatorine, +circular, sessile disc: red-brown to black, flat to strongly convex, often whitish or bluish pruinose margin: persistent or readily excluded with age exciple: composed of radiating, branched and anastomosing hyphae, +colorless within, brown at the outer edge epihymenium: orange- to greenish brown hymenium: colorless, 60-110 µm thick; paraphyses: colorless below, with reddish brown apical cells, sparsely branched below; hypothecium: hyaline asci: clavate, Lecidella-type, 8-spored ascospores: hyaline, simple, broadly ellipsoid, relatively thick-walled Conidiomata: not known Secondary metabolites: atranorin, chlorinated depsides, and chlorinated xanthones Geography: southwest Europe, Mexico and East Asia Substrate: on bark.