Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2004. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 2.
Life habit: lichenized or lichenicolous Thallus: crustose, areolate, attached by the whole lower surface surface: brown, gray, or brownish yellow cortex: epinecral layer distinct medulla: white, euamyloid or not Ascomata: apothecial, laminal on thallus, orbicular, immersed margin: indistinct to distinct exciple: brown, gray to hyaline; ±reduced epihymenium: hyaline, brownish yellow to olivaceous hymenium: hyaline, 50-125 µm tall; paraphyses: simple or rarely branched, distinctly anastomosing; hypothecium: brown, brownish yellow to hyaline asci: clavate, Porpidia-type, with apically an thickened wall, 8-spored ascospores: hyaline, simple, ellipsoid, obtuse, 13-24 x 613 µm; wall: thin or thick, +halonate, smooth, I- Conidiomata: pycnidial, laminal on thallus, immersed conidia: bacilliform Secondary metabolites: orcinol depsides Geography: Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, and North America Substrate: on non-calciferous or calciferous rock, rarely on lichens.