Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2004. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 2.
Life habit: lichenized Thallus: crustose, often filmy, smooth or rarely +verrucose, effuse, sometimes isidiate, often with hyphophores hyphophores: sometimes present, erect, spine-like, top-shaped or scaly photobiont: primary one a green trebouxioid alga, secondary one absent Ascomata: apothecial, red-brown to black, often with a raised rim, immersed, semi-immersed or sessile, becoming translucent when wet, lacking a thalline margin proper exciple and hymenium: composed of a loosely anastomosing network of thin hyphae (paraphysoids) in a gelatinous matrix asci: cylindrical-clavate to ovate, thickened at the apices, internally I+ dark red, 2-8-spored ascospores: hyaline, transversely septate to muriform, with a thin to thick perispore Conidiomata: pycnidia not observed but hyphophores may serve a similar function Secondary metabolites: none detected by TLC Geography: western Europe, tropical South America and North America Substrate: on rocks, trees, mosses or soil in humid microhabitats and as epiphylls in the tropics. Note: Gyalideopsis is a very rarely collected genus. Superficially it is similar to Gyalidea, but that genus is very different anatomically, as it has true paraphyses.