Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2004. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 2.
Life habit: lichenicolous, parasitic, non-lichenized Ascomata: pseudothecia, black, globose, ostiolate, numerous and united in groups by a common black clypeus; pseudothecial wall: composed of brown to dark brown pigmented cells, textura intricata-like but sometimes becoming pseudoparenchymatous at maturity hymenium: I-, K/I- pseudoparaphyses: remaining distinct, filiform, hyaline, septate, sparsely branched and anastomosing periphyses: not clearly differentiated or having short periphysoids asci: subcylindrical, short-stalked, bitunicate, with a distinct internal apical beak, 4- or 8-spored ascospores: dark brown, simple, ellipsoid, with delicately verruculose walls Conidiomata: pycnidial, immersed conidia: hyaline, simple, bacilliform Geography: North Africa, Antarctica, Europe, New Zealand, and North America Substrate: thallus of lichens (Cetraria, Cetrelia, Hypocenomyce, Neofuscelia, Squamarina, Umbilicaria, etc.).