Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2004. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 2.
Thallus: crustose, superficial, 0.1-0.3 mm thick, rimose to areolate areoles: angular, plane to slightly convex, up to 0.5 mm wide surface: gray to pale brown to olivaceous, opaque cortex: 20-40 µm thick Apothecia: scattered, in loose groups, or gregarious, 50-300 per cm², orbicular to slightly lingulate, sessile, not constricted at base, (0.25)0.4-0.5(-0.7) mm in diam. disc: bright orange to brown when old, plane to slightly to distinctly convex, K+ red to violet margin: indistinct, becoming excluded exciple: hyaline to pale orange, inhomogeneously pigmented, with parallel-radiate hyphae epihymenium: orange to brown, 8-12 µm thick hymenium: hyaline to pale yellow, 70120 µm tall; paraphyses: 2-2.6-4 µm wide, branched and anastomosing, apically slightly thickened, 2.5-4.5 µm wide; hypothecium: hyaline or pale yellow to pale orange, inhomogeneously pigmented asci: clavate, 8-spored ascospores: hyaline, simple, ellipsoid to broadly ellipsoid to oval, (9-)11-14(-16.5) x (5-)6-8(-9) µm Spot tests: thallus K-, C-, KC-, P- Secondary metabolites: apothecia with anthraquinone pigments. Substrate and ecology: calcareous rock, also common on anthropogenous substrates like walls, borderings, and gravestones, in partially to fully shaded habitats, from lowland to the subalpine zone World distribution: widespread in boreal to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, extending to the Southern Hemisphere Sonoran distribution: Arizona at intermediate elevations.