Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Thallus: foliose, irregular to orbicular, up to 5 cm diam. (forming colonies up to 15 cm diam.), loosely adnate with discrete, repeatedly dichotomously or irregularly lobate lobes: up to 2 mm broad, usually around 1 mm, irregularly or dichotomously branched; tips: not ascending, with small adventive lateral lobules, eciliate upper surface: greenish white or gray to dark gray or brownish, not or very weakly pruinose; soredia and isidia absent upper cortex: prosoplectenchymatous medulla: white lower cortex: absent lower surface: white to purple or almost black; rhizines: marginal, pale to black, ± abundantly branched Apothecia: ± common, variable in size, substipitate, up to 5 (-10) mm diam., sometimes cupshaped, shortly stipitate or sessile with lobulate margin; disc: brown to dark brown asci: cylindrical to subclavate, 8-spored ascospores: brown, l-septate, ellipsoid, Pachysporaria type, with or without sporoblastidia, (22.5-) 23.5-30.5 (-35.5) x (11-) 12.5-16 (-17) µm Pycnidia: ± common conidia: bacilliform, 4-5 x 1 µm [but Kurokawa (1962) reports 1-2 x 0.3-0.5 µm] Spot tests: cortex K+ yellow C-, KC-, P+ yellow; medulla K+ yellow or K+ yellow to orange, C-, KC-, P- or P+ yellow to orange Secondary metabolites: cortex with atranorin and chloroatranorin; medulla with atranorin, zeorin, leucotylin and ± norstictic acid. Substrate and ecology: growing on bark in fairly moist but open conditions World distribution: southern North America, Africa and eastern Asia Sonoran distribution: relatively common in SE Arizona and the Sierra Madre Occidental region of Chihuahua, Sonora and Sinaloa and on the mountains of the southern tip of Baja California Sur. Notes: The "wooly" upper lobe-tips, the ecorticate lower side, discrete lobes with small adventive lobes and lobulate apothecia identify the species. It could be characterized as the fertile counterpart of H. japonica.