Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Thallus: adnate, foliose, 4-20 cm in diam., lobate lobes: sublinear, contiguous, elongate, plane to subconvex, separate, 2-4 mm wide, apices truncate upper surface: gray (to brown in exposed habitats), smooth to foveolate, shiny, sometimes white pruinose, becoming cracked along prominent, effigurate pseudocyphellae isidia: cylindrical, simple to coralloid, abundant, laminal, dense; soredia and pustulae absent medulla: white with continuous algal layer lower surface: black, rhizinate, rhizines: moderately dense, black, simple to furcate Apothecia: rare, laminal, 2-8 mm wide; margin: usually isidiate; disc: red-brown to dark brown asci: clavate, 8-spored ascospores: ellipsoid, 16-18 x 9-11 µm Pycnidia: not seen Spot tests: upper cortex K+ yellow, C-, KC-, P+ yellow; medulla K+ yellow turning deep red, C-, KC-, P+ orange Secondary metabolites: upper cortex with atranorin and chloroatranorin; medulla with salazinic acid (major) and consalazinic acids (minor). Substrate and ecology: on rocks in open habitats, rarely on trees World distribution: pantemperate and southern boreal Sonoran distribution: relatively rare on scree rocks in upper montane habitats, Arizona.