Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Thallus: foliose, 2.5-5 cm diam., adnate to loosely adnate, subdichotomously lobate lobes: irregular, relatively short, plane, often imbricate, 2-5 mm wide; apices: subtruncate to subrotund upper surface: medium to dark gray, smooth, shiny, emaculate soredia: coarse, in submarginal to apical pustulae; isidia, and dactyls absent medulla: white with continuous algal layer lower surface: black, peripherally brownish black, shiny, often wrinkled; rhizines: sparsely to moderately dense, black, simple to rarely dichotomous Apothecia and ascospores: not seen Pycnidia and conidia: not seen Spot tests: upper cortex K+ yellow, C-, KC-, P+ yellow, UV-; medulla K-, C-, KC-, P- Secondary metabolites: upper cortex with atranorin and chloroatranorin; medulla with protolichesterinic acid (major) and lichesterinic acid (minor). Substrate and ecology: usually on hardwood or pine bark in montane forests World distribution: South and North America in Peru and Arizona Sonoran distribution: southern Arizona. Notes: Morphologically the species is similar to H. costaricensis which has a different fatty acid profile. In addition, the latter species has isidia whereas H. punoensis has sorediate pustules. Chemically the species was not originally characterized but is herein determined by J. A. Elix.