Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Thallus: adnate, foliose, 4-12 cm in diam., irregularly lobate lobes: sublinear to subirregular, elongate, plane to subconvex, separate, 3-5 mm wide; apices: rotund, crenate to deeply incised, eciliate upper surface: pale gray to ashy white, smooth to rugose, dull, maculate, sorediate soredia: coarse, granular, whitish, laminal, initially in pustulae that develop into orbicular, capitate soralia; soralia usually not confluent; isidia absent medulla: white with continuous algal layer lower surface: black with a brown bare zone marginally; rhizines: sparse to moderately dense (except margin), black, simple Apothecia: rare, laminal on thallus, 2-5 mm wide; disc: red-brown to dark brown; margin: usually sorediate ascospores: ellipsoid, 8-11 x 5-7 Pycnidia: rare, immersed conidia: weakly bifusiform 6-8 x 1 micro meter Spot tests: upper cortex K+ yellow, C-, KC-, P+ yellow, medulla K-, C-, KC- [or + pale pink], P- Secondary metabolites: upper cortex with atranorin and chloroatranorin; medulla with divaricatic acid (major), nordivaricatic and stenosporic acids (trace). Substrate and ecology: on pines and hardwoods in dry open woods or along roads in lower to mid-elevation montane areas World distribution: pantropical and some adjacent temperate areas of North and South America, Asia and Australasia Sonoran distribution: SE Arizona southwards through the Sierra Madre Occidental of Chihuahua, Sonora and Sinaloa and in the southern mountains of Baja California Sur.