Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2004. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 2.
Thallus: indistinct or crustose, rimose or areolate, thin (0.1-0.7 mm, thick); prothallus: present surface: black, gray, or brown, rough, smooth, without asexual propagules Apothecia: sessile, 0.25-0.45 mm in diam. disc: black, plane to convex, epruinose margin: indistinct to distinct, becoming excluded, not umbonate exciple: green, brown, hyaline, or brownish yellow parathecium: brown or hyaline, with crystals soluble in K hymenium: hyaline (with orange patches) below, black or green above, 40-50 µm tall; paraphyses: distinctly thickened hypothecium: hyaline, brownish yellow, or orange asci: clavate, 8-spored ascospores: hyaline, simple or occasionally 1-septate, ellipsoid, oblong-obtuse, or ellipsoid-cylindrical, 7-14.5(-17) x (3)-3.5-5.5(-6) µm Secondary metabolites: 7-chloroemodin. Substrate and ecology: bark, non-calciferous rock, or calciferous rock in mixed conifer forests World distribution: Europe and North America Sonoran distribution: eastern Arizona.